Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Lab Review."— Presentation transcript:
1 AP BiologyLab Review
2 Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
3 Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis Description
measured factors affecting enzyme activityH2O2 H2O + O2measured rate of O2 productioncatalase
4 Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis Concepts substrate enzyme product
enzyme structureproductdenaturation of proteinexperimental designrate of reactivityreaction with enzyme vs. reaction without enzymeoptimum pH or temperaturetest at various pH or temperature values
5 Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis Conclusions
enzyme reaction rate is affected by:pHtemperaturesubstrate concentrationenzyme concentrationcalculate rate?
6 Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis ESSAY 2000
The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The following results were obtained.a. How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer, include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme, as well as a discussion of ho structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH.b. Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. Be sure to state the hypothesis that was tested here.
7 Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis
8 Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis
Descriptiondialysis tubing filled with starch-glucose solution in beaker filled with KI solutionpotato cores in sucrose solutionsdetermining solute concentration of different solutions
9 Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis
Conceptssemi-permeable membranediffusionosmosissolutionshypotonichypertonicisotonicwater potential
10 Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis
Conclusionswater moves:from toHigh /high water concentration Low /Low water concentrationHigh free energy of water Low free energy of waterHypotonic = low solute Hypertonic = high soluteLow osmolarity= low solute High osmolarity = high solutesolute concentration & size of molecule affect movement through semi-permeable membrane
11 Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis
ESSAY 1992A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions.Include in your answer:a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment;the results you would expect from your experiment; andan explanation of those results based on the principles involved.Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.
12 Lab 4: Photosynthesis
13 Lab 4: Photosynthesis Description
determine rate of photosynthesis under different conditionslight vs. darkboiled vs. unboiled chloroplastschloroplasts vs. no chloroplastsuse DPIP in place of NADP+DPIPox = blueDPIPred = clearmeasure light transmittancepaper chromatography to separate plant pigments
14 Lab 4: Photosynthesis Concepts photosynthesis Photosystem 1
NADPHchlorophylls & other plant pigmentschlorophyll achlorophyll bxanthophyllscarotenoidsexperimental designcontrol vs. experimental
15 Lab 4: Photosynthesis Conclusions Pigments Photosynthesis
pigments move at different rates based on solubility in solventPhotosynthesislight & unboiled chloroplasts produced highest rate of photosynthesisWhich is the control?#2 (DPIP + chloroplasts + light)
16 Lab 4: Photosynthesis ESSAY 2004 (part 1)
A controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on the photosynthetic rate of incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with DPIP, an electron acceptor that changes from blue to clear when it is reduced. Each sample was placed individually in a spectrophotometer and the percent transmittance was recorded. The three samples used were prepared as follows.Sample 1 — chloroplast suspension + DPIPSample 2 — chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment + DPIPSample 3 — chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIPData are given in the table on the next page.a. Construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples.b. Identify and explain the control or controls for this experiment.c. The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons produced in the three samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and why the three samples gave different transmittance results.
17 Lab 4: Photosynthesis ESSAY 2004 (part 2) Time (min)
Light, Unboiled % transmittanceSample 1Dark, Unboiled % transmittanceSample 2Light, Boiled % transmittanceSample 328.829.2548.730.11057.831.229.41562.532.428.72066.731.828.5
18 Lab 5: Cellular Respiration
19 Lab 5: Cellular Respiration
Descriptionusing respirometer to measure rate of O2 production by pea seedsnon-germinating peasgerminating peaseffect of temperaturecontrol for changes in pressure & temperature in room
20 Lab 5: Cellular Respiration
Conceptsrespirationexperimental designcontrol vs. experimentalfunction of KOHfunction of vial with only glass beads
21 Lab 5: Cellular Respiration
Conclusionstemp = respirationgermination = respirationcalculate rate?
22 Lab 5: Cellular Respiration
ESSAY 1990The results below are measurements of cumulative oxygen consumption by germinating and dry seeds. Gas volume measurements were corrected for changes in temperature and pressure.a. Plot the results for the germinating seeds at 22°C and 10°C.b. Calculate the rate of oxygen consumption for the germinating seeds at 22°C, using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes.c. Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between:1. germinating seeds at 22°C and at 10°C2. germinating seeds and dry seeds.d. Describe the essential features of an experimental apparatus that could be used to measure oxygen consumption by a small organism. Explain why each of these features is necessary.Cumulative Oxygen Consumed (mL)Time (minutes)10203040Germinating seeds 22°C0.08.816.023.732.0Dry Seeds (non-germinating) 22°C0.20.1Germinating Seeds 10°C220.127.116.112.5Dry Seeds (non-germinating) 10°C
23 Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis
24 Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis Description cell stages of mitosis
exam slide of onion root tipcount number of cells in each stage to determine relative time spent in each stagestages of & crossing over in meiosismodel cell stages & crossing overfarther genes are from each other the greater number of crossovers
25 Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis I P M A T Concepts mitosis meiosis
interphaseprophasemetaphaseanaphasetelophasemeiosismeiosis 1separate homologous pairsmeiosis 2separate sister chromatidscrossing overin prophase 1IPMAT
26 Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis Conclusions Mitosis Meiosis cell division
growth, repairmaking cloneslongest phase = interphaseeach subsequent phase is shorter in durationMeiosisreduction divisionmaking gametesincreasing variationcrossing over in Prophase 1
27 Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis ESSAY 1987
Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. Do not include meiosis.ESSAY 2004Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information.a. Explain how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis.b. Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. Identify ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis.c. Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents.
28 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
29 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
Descriptiongiven fly of unknown genotype use crosses to determine mode of inheritance of trait
30 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
Conceptsphenotype vs. genotypedominant vs. recessiveP, F1, F2 generationssex-linkedmonohybrid crossdihybrid crosstest crosschi square
31 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
Conclusions: Can you solve these?Case 1Case 2
32 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
ESSAY 2003 (part 1)In fruit flies, the phenotype for eye color is determined by a certain locus. E indicates the dominant allele and e indicates the recessive allele. The cross between a male wild type fruit fly and a female white eyed fruit fly produced the following offspringThe wild-type and white-eyed individuals from the F1 generation were then crossed to produce the following offspring.a. Determine the genotypes of the original parents (P generation) and explain your reasoning. You may use Punnett squares to enhance your description, but the results from the Punnett squares must be discussed in your answer.b. Use a Chi-squared test on the F2 generation data to analyze your prediction of the parental genotypes. Show all your work and explain the importance of your final answer.c. The brown-eyed female of the F1 generation resulted from a mutational change. Explain what a mutation is, and discuss two types of mutations that might have produced the brown-eyed female in the F1 generation.Wild-Type MaleWild-Type FemaleWhite-eyed MaleWhite-Eyed FemaleBrown-Eyed FemaleF-145551Wild-Type MaleWild-Type FemaleWhite-eyed MaleWhite-Eyed FemaleBrown-Eyed FemaleF-223312224
33 Lab 7: Genetics (Fly Lab)
ESSAY 2003 (part 2)The formula for Chi-squared is:Probability (p)Degrees of Freedom (df)12345.053.845.997.829.4911.12=(observed – expected)2expected
34 Lab 6: Molecular Biology
35 Lab 6: Molecular Biology
DescriptionTransformationinsert foreign gene in bacteria by using engineered plasmidalso insert ampicillin resistant gene on same plasmid as selectable markerGel electrophoresiscut DNA with restriction enzymefragments separate on gel based on size
36 Lab 6: Molecular Biology
Conceptstransformationplasmidselectable markerampicillin resistancerestriction enzymegel electrophoresisDNA is negatively chargedsmaller fragments travel faster
37 Lab 6: Transformation Conclusions can insert foreign DNA using vector
ampicillin becomes selecting agentno transformation = no growth on amp+ plate
38 Lab 6: Gel Electrophoresis
ConclusionsDNA = negatively chargedcorrelate distance to sizesmaller fragments travel faster & therefore farther
39 Lab 6: Molecular Biology
ESSAY 1995The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y).Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragmentsDescribe the results you would expect from electrophoretic separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above. Assume that the digestion occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion.DNA digested with only enzyme XDNA digested with only enzyme YDNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combinedUndigested DNAExplain both of the following:The mechanism of action of restriction enzymesThe different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y.
40 Lab 6: Molecular Biology
ESSAY 2002The human genome illustrates both continuity and change.Describe the essential features of two of the procedures/techniques below. For each of the procedures/techniques you describe, explain how its application contributes to understanding genetics.The use of a bacterial plasmid to clone and sequence a human genePolymerase chain reaction (PCR)Restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP analysis)All humans are nearly identical genetically in coding sequences and have many proteins that are identical in structure and function. Nevertheless, each human has a unique DNA fingerprint. Explain this apparent contradiction.
41 Lab 8: Population Genetics
size of population & gene poolrandom vs. non-random mating
42 Lab 8: Population Genetics
Descriptionsimulations were used to study effects of different parameters on frequency of alleles in a populationselectionheterozygous advantagegenetic drift
43 Lab 8: Population Genetics
ConceptsHardy-Weinberg equilibriump + q = 1p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1required conditionslarge populationrandom matingno mutationsno natural selectionno migrationgene poolheterozygous advantagegenetic driftfounder effectbottleneck
44 Lab 8: Population Genetics
Conclusionsrecessive alleles remain hidden in the pool of heterozygoteseven lethal recessive alleles are not completely removed from populationknow how to solve H-W problems!to calculate allele frequencies, use p + q = 1to calculate genotype frequencies or how many individuals, use, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
45 Lab 8: Population Genetics
ESSAY 1989Do the following with reference to the Hardy-Weinberg model.a. Indicate the conditions under which allele frequencies (p and q) remain constant from one generation to the next.b. Calculate, showing all work, the frequencies of the alleles and frequencies of the genotypes in a population of 100,000 rabbits of which 25,000 are white and 75,000 are agouti. (In rabbits the white color is due to a recessive allele, w, and agouti is due to a dominant allele, W.)c. If the homozygous dominant condition were to become lethal, what would happen to the allelic and genotypic frequencies in the rabbit population after two generations?
46 Lab 9: Transpiration
47 Lab 9: Transpiration Description
test the effects of environmental factors on rate of transpirationtemperaturehumidityair flow (wind)light intensity
48 Lab 9: Transpiration Concepts transpiration stomates guard cells xylem
49 Lab 9: Transpiration Conclusions transpiration transpiration wind
50 Lab 9: Transpiration ESSAY 1991
A group of students designed an experiment to measure transpiration rates in a particular species of herbaceous plant. Plants were divided into four groups and were exposed to the following conditions.Group I: Room conditions (light, low humidity, 20°C, little air movement.)Group II: Room conditions with increased humidity.Group III: Room conditions with increased air movement (fan)Group IV: Room conditions with additional lightThe cumulative water loss due to transpiration of water from each plant was measured at 10-minute intervals for 30 minutes. Water loss was expressed as milliliters of water per square centimeter of leaf surface area. The data for all plants in Group I (room conditions) were averaged. The average cumulative water loss by the plants in Group I is presented in the table below.Construct and label a graph using the data for Group I. Using the same set of axes, draw and label three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for Groups II, III, and IV.Explain how biological and physical processes are responsible for the difference between each of your predictions and the data for Group I.Explain how the concept of water potential is used to account for the movement of water from the plant stem to the atmosphere during transpiration.Average Cumulative Water Loss by the Plants in Group ITime (minutes)Average Cumulative Water Loss (mL H2O/cm2)103.5 x 10-4207.7 x 10-43010.6 x 10-4
51 Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology
52 Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology
Descriptionstudy factors that affect heart ratebody positionlevel of activitydetermine whether an organism is an endotherm or an ectotherm by measuring change in pulse rate as temperature changesDaphnia
53 Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology
ConceptsthermoregulationendothermectothermQ10measures increase in metabolic activity resulting from increase in body temperatureDaphnia can adjust their temperature to the environment, as temperature in environment increases, their body temperature also increases which increases their heart rate
54 Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology
ConclusionsActivity increase heart ratein a fit individual pulse & blood pressure are lower & will return more quickly to resting condition after exercise than in a less fit individualPulse rate changes in an ectotherm as external temperature changes
55 Lab 10: Circulatory Physiology
ESSAY 2002In mammals, heart rate during periods of exercise is linked to the intensity of exercise.Discuss the interactions of the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems during exercise.Design a controlled experiment to determine the relationship between intensity of exercise and heart rate.On the axes provided below, indicate results you expect for both the control and the experimental groups for the controlled experiment you described in part B. Remember to label the axes.
56 Lab 12: Dissolved OxygenDissolved O2 availability
57 Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen
This zip file contains many different activities (41 pages of student handouts and 2 PowerPoints with a total of 95 slides) which can be used to compose a unit for AP Biology or advanced Biology students involving major topics concerning enzymes. Topics in this unit enzymes and reaction rate, enzyme structure, substrates, active sites, lock and key versus the induced fit enzyme model, factors including enzyme activity including pH, temperature, salts, competitive and noncompetive inhibitors, allosteric effects, zymogens and feedback inhibition.
While these lessons were originally designed for my AP Biology curriculum, they can be adapted to any advanced level Biology program.
I have included online textbook and a video link with the worksheets in this learning packet. These links work currently as of 9/6/16. I can not guarantee that these links will not change or "disappear". Having said that, these worksheets work well with the provided curriculum materials and any AP Biology Collegeboard approved textbook.
This lesson packet contains a listing of the learning goals, common core learning standards, NGSS learning standards and the AP Biology performance indicators addressed in these materials. These are included in the packet and at the end of the description of this lesson.
The components of this lesson package can easily be displayed to students using and LCD projector and may be readily modified into formats facilitating smartboard technology. Most documents are included in both word doc or docx as well as pdf format to allow editing for specific teacher needs. The learning guides/assignments contain links to online resources to support student learning.
Answer keys are included for all items including some suggested answers for the three lab activities (as the answers and data obtained by students can exhibit a good deal of variation).
All documents are included in word and pdf format The specific contents of the learning package includes the page count for the student documents as answer key page counts are not included. The specific contents listed below:
-- Enzyme Learning Standards and Objectives (2 pages)
-- Brief Review of Kinetics and Potential Energy Diagrams PowerPoint (28 slides)
-- Completion Notes to accompany the Brief Review of Kinetics and Potential Energy Diagrams PowerPoint (3 pages)
-- Enzyme PowerPoint (67 slides)
-- Completion Notes to accompany the Enzyme PowerPoint (9 pages)
-- Enzyme Exam with key (50 questions) (9 pages)
-- Enzyme Worksheet # 1 with key (8 questions) (2 pages)
-- Enzyme Worksheet # 2 with key (5 multi-part question with graph) (3 pages)
-- Factors Influencing Reaction Rates Lab (6 pages)
-- Enzyme Reaction Rate Lab with key (3 pages)
-- Instructions and How to do video for the Enzyme Catalysis Reaction Rate Lab (2 pages)
-- Paperase Lab with Key (4 pages)
Enzyme Learning Objectives ETS
BIG IDEA #4: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS INTERACT, AND THESE SYSTEMS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS POSSESS COMPLEX PROPERTIES
Enduring understanding 4.A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
Essential knowledge 4.A.1: The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.
LO 4.1 The student is able to explain the connection between the sequence and the subcomponents of a biological polymer and its properties.
LO 4.2 The student is able to refine representations and models to explain how the subcomponents of a biological polymer and their sequence determine the properties of that polymer.
LO 4.3 The student is able to use models to predict and justify that changes in the subcomponents of a biological polymer affect the functionality of the molecule.
Enduring understanding 4.B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.
Essential knowledge 4.B.1: Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.
LO 4.17 The student is able to analyze data to identify how molecular interactions affect structure and function.
Enzyme Student Learning Goals
Upon the completion of this unit the student will be able to:
1. describe the influence of enzymes on chemical reactions and represent this influence on a potential energy diagram.
2. describe the basic structure of an enzyme.
3. define the terms substrate and active site.
4. describe the role of coenzymes and cofactors in relation to the structure and function of enzymes.
5. compare the lock and key and induced fit hypotheses of enzyme function.
6. discuss how and why changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration influence enzyme activity.
7. define the term denaturization.
8. recognize the effects when a fixed amount of enzyme is placed with an excess of substrate and explain why these effects occur.
9. recognize the effects when a fixed amount of substrate is placed with an excess of enzyme and explain why these effects occur.
10. explain how enzyme activity can be regulated by competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.
11. define the term zymogen and discuss an example of this.
12. define the term allosteric interaction and explain how these can be used to regulate metabolic pathways.
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Common Core State Standards Connections:
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
MP.4 Model with mathematics.