Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federalparliamentarydemocratic republic. At the national level, the people of Pakistan elect a bicamerallegislature, the Parliament of Pakistan. The parliament consists of a lower house called the National Assembly, which is elected directly, and an upper house called the Senate, whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. The head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected by the majority members of the National Assembly and the head of state (and figurehead), the President, is elected by the Electoral College, which consists of both houses of Parliament together with the four provincial assemblies. In addition to the national parliament and the provincial assemblies, Pakistan also has more than five thousand elected local governments.
The Election Commission of Pakistan, a constitutionally established institution chaired by an appointed and designated Chief Election Commissioner, supervises the general elections. The Pakistan Constitution defines (to a basic extent) how general elections are held in Part VIII, Chapter 2 and various amendments. A multi-party system is in effect, with the National Assembly consisting of 342 seats and the Senate consisting of 104 seats elected from the four provinces. The Constitution dictates that the general elections be held every five years when the National Assembly has completed its term or has been dissolved and that the Senatorial elections be held to elect members for terms of six years. By law, general elections must be held within two months of the National Assembly completing its term.
In law and Constitution
The Constitution of Pakistan more broadly and briefly defines how general elections (to a basic extent) are conducted, giving the time of elections, and the framework under which the elections are to be conducted set up the Constitution of Pakistan in Article 222-226 in Chapter 2:
- No Person shall, at the same time, be a member of, both houses (National Assembly and Senate) or a House and a Provincial Assemblies.
- When the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly is dissolved, a general election to the Assembly shall be held within a period of ninety days after the dissolution, and the results of the election shall be declared not later than fourteen days after the conclusion of the polls.
|“||A general election to the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly shall be held within a period of sixty days immediately following the day on which the day on which the term of the Assembly is due to expire, unless the Assembly has been sooner dissolved, and the results of the election shall be declared not later than fourteen days before that day.||”|
|— Article 222–226: Part VIII: Elections, Chapter:2 Electoral Laws and Conduct of Elections, source: The Constitution of Pakistan|
Election Commission of Pakistan
Main article: Election Commission of Pakistan
The duty of conducting elections are established in the Constitution of Pakistan. Established in 1956, the Election Commission of Pakistan holds the purpose of elections to Houses of Parliament, four provincial assemblies and for election of such other public offices as may be specified by law or until such law is made by the Parliament. The Election Commission is constituted with comprising the Chief Election Commissioner as its chairman (who is a judge or/ retired judge of the Supreme Court) and four appointed members from each four provinces, each of whom is a judge of four High Courts of the four provinces; all appointed by the President by constitution.
After approving the consultations from the chief justices of high courts of four provinces and the chief election commissioner, the President constitutionally approved the appointments of the designated members of the election commission. The chief election commissioner is appointed by the President, in his/her discretion, for a term of 3 years. The Constitution grants the chief election commission the security of tenure and financial autonomy.
Levels of Elections
Pakistan has a parliamentary system in which, the executive and legislature are elected directly by public voting in a Constituencies on first-past-the-post system through a secret ballot. Article 222–229 of the Constitution of Pakistan forbids the candidate of occupying the membership of National Assembly and the Provincial assemblies simultaneously. In direct elections, a candidate who obtains the highest number of votes in a constituency, is declared elected as a Member of National or a Provincial Assembly.
The Seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each of Four Provinces, the FATAs and the Federal Capital on the basis of population in accordance with the last preceding Census officially published. Members to the Seats reserved for Women and Non-Muslims, are elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political party's lists of candidates on the basis of total number of General Seats secured by each political party in the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly. The National Assembly has 342 seats, usually elected for five year terms; however, if the National Assembly dissolved, a general elections must be called in ninety-days period, in accordance to the constitution.
National Assembly Composition
The Senate consists of 104 members, of whom 14 members are elected by each Provincial Assembly, eight members are elected from FATAs by the Members of National Assembly from these areas, two members (one woman and one technocrat) is elected from the Federal Capital by the Members of National Assembly; four women and four Technocrats are elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly. One seat in the senate is reserved for minorities in each province.
It is the responsibility of the Chief Election Commissioner to hold and make arrangements for the Senate elections in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote through electoral colleges. The term of the members of the Senate is 6 years. However, the term of the first group of the Senators, who shall retire after completion of first 3 years of the Senate, is determined by drawing of lots by the Chief Election Commission purposes.
The President is elected in presidential elections. In an indirect election, with the winner being determined by votes casts by the electors of the Electoral College. The electoral college is composed of elected senators, members of the national and provincial assemblies. The President is a ceremonial post, head of state, and merely a figurehead with the executive powers granted to Prime Minister, by the Constitution. The Constitution grants right to both men and women to run for the presidency as it states that a presidential candidate, a Muslim, not less than 45 years of age, and a Member of the National Assembly, can contest the Presidential election. The President is elected for a term of 5 years.
It is the duty of Chief Election Commissioner to conduct elections to the office of the President in a special session of Parliament and all the Provincial Assemblies in accordance with the provisions of Second Schedule to the Constitution.
Local government elections
In order to decentralize administrative and financial authority to be accountable to Local Governments, for good governance, effective delivery of services and transparent decision making through institutionalized participation of the people at grassroots level, elections to the local government institutions are held after every four years on non party basis by the Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan.
Members of Union Council including Union Administrator and Vice Union Administrator are elected through direct elections based on adult franchise and on the basis of joint electorate. However, for the election to the reserved seats for Women in Zila council proportionately divided among Tehsils or Towns shall be all members of the Union Councils in a Tehsil or Town. It is the responsibility of the Chief Election Commissioner to organize and conduct these elections.
First local government election was held in 1959 under the dictatorship of ayub khan. second local government election was held in 1979 under the dictatorship of general zia ul haq. third local government election was under right after the cope of Pervaiz Musharaf in 2000, and finally first time in history of Pakistan local body election held in Pakistan on December 7, 2013. Balochistan was the province where LBTemplate:Description needed Polls held. Punjab, Sindh and KP are all set to conduct the polls. These first time BD Election held due to the immense pressure of new merging political power of PTI on the central government of PMLN.
Methods of Voting Qualification
Qualification for membership of the Parliament
A person who is a citizen of Pakistan, is enrolled as a voter in any electoral roll under the Electoral Rolls Act 1974 and in case of National/Provincial Assemblies is not less than 25 years of age and in case of Senate not less than 30 years of age, is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic injunctions, has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practices, obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sin, is sagacious, righteous and non-profligate, honest and ameen, has not been convicted for a crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence, and has not, after establishment of Pakistan, worked against the integrity of the country or opposed the ideology of Pakistan and is graduate, can contest the elections and become a member of the Parliament or a Provincial Assembly.
A person, who is a citizen of Pakistan, is not less than 18 years of age on the first day of January of the year in which the rolls are prepared or revised, is not declared by a competent court to be of un-sound mind and is or is deemed to be a resident of an electoral area, can get himself enrolled as a voter in that electoral area. The citizens registered on the electoral rolls are only eligible to cast their votes.
Voting registration system
- For the conduct of elections to the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Election Commission appoints a District Returning Officer for each District and a Returning Officer for each constituency, who are drawn from amongst the officers of the Judiciary, the Federal/Provincial Government and Local Authorities. Returning Officers are mostly Additional District & Sessions Judges.
- The list of polling stations is prepared by the Returning Officers and approved by the District Returning Officer. No polling station can be located in the premises of a candidate.
- The list of Presiding Officers, Assistant Presiding Officers and polling staff is prepared by the Returning Officer and sent to the District Returning Officer for approval at least 15 days before the polls. The Presiding Officer is responsible for conducting polls at the Polling Station and maintaining law and order. He is assisted by the Assistant Presiding Officers and Polling Officer.
- After the publication of Election Schedule by the Election Commission, nomination papers are invited from interested contesting candidates.
- Scrutiny of nomination papers is carried out by the Returning Officers and nomination papers are accepted/rejected.
- Appeals against rejection/acceptance of nomination papers are filed with the appellate tribunal, who decide such appeals summarily within such time as may be notified by the Commission and any order passed thereon shall be final.
- Final list of contesting candidates is prepared and published in the prescribed manner by the Returning Officer after incorporation of the decisions on appeals and after withdrawal of candidature by the candidates if any.
- Election Symbols are also allocated to the candidates by the Returning Officer according to their party affiliation or as an individual candidate, from the list of Election Symbols approved by the Election Commission. The Returning Officer also publishes the names of the contesting candidates arranged in the Urdu alphabetical order specifying against each the symbol allocated to him.
- The Election Commission of Pakistan provides each Returning Officer with copies of voter's list for his constituency who distributes it amongst the Presiding Officers in accordance with the polling scheme and assignment of voters to each polling station/booth.
- Voters cast their votes at specified polling stations according to their names in an electoral rolls. Since the election for both National and Provincial Assemblies constituencies are held on the same day, the voter is issued two separate ballot papers for each National Assembly and Provincial Assembly constituency.
- When an elector presents himself at the polling station to vote, the Presiding Officer shall issue a ballot paper to the elector after satisfying himself about the identity of the elector through his identity card.
- Polling is held for nine hours on the polling day without any break.
- Immediately after the close of the poll votes are counted at the polling stations by the Presiding Officers in presence of the candidates, their Election Agents, and Polling Agents.
- After counting the ballot papers the Presiding Officer prepares a statement of the count indicating the number of votes secured by a candidate, and send it to the Returning Officer along with the election material, un-used ballot papers, spoilt ballot papers, tendered ballot papers, challenged ballot papers, marked copies of the electoral rolls, the counter-foils of used ballot papers, the tendered votes lists, and the challenged votes lists.
- The Presiding Officers also announce the result of count at the polling stations and paste a copy of the result outside the polling stations.
- After the receipt of statement of counts from the Presiding Officers of the polling stations, the Returning Officer compiles the preliminary unofficial result and intimates the results to the Election Commission through fax for announcement on print/electronic media.
- After the announcement of unofficial result, the Returning Officer serves a notice to all the contesting candidates and their election agents regarding the day, time and place fixed for consolidation of the result. In the presence of the contesting candidates and election agents, the Returning Officer consolidates the results of the count furnished by the Presiding Officers in the prescribed manner including postal ballot received by him before the polling day.
- Immediately after preparing the consolidated statement the Returning Officer submits a copy to the Election Commission in the prescribed form which publishes the names of the returned candidates in the official Gazette.
History of elections in Pakistan
Past elections:General elections from 1954 to 1970
1st elections : 1954 (indirect elections) = PML
2nd elections : 1962 (indirect elections) = PML
3rd elections : 1970 = AL
4th elections : 1977 = PPP
5th elections : 1985 = PML (non-party basis elections)
6th elections : 1988 = PPP
7th elections : 1990 = IJI
8th elections : 1993 = PPP
9th elections : 1997 = PMLN
10th elections : 2002 = PMLQ
11th elections : 2008 = PPP
12th elections : 2013 = PMLN
Between 1947 and 1958, there were no direct elections held in Pakistan at the national level. Provincial elections were held occasionally. The West Pakistan provincial elections were described as "a farce, a mockery and a fraud upon the electorate"
The first direct elections held in the country after independence were for the provincial Assembly of the Punjab between 10–20 March 1951. The elections were held for 197 seats. As many as 939 candidates contested the election for 189 seats, while the remaining seats were filled unopposed. Seven political parties were in the race. The election was held on an adult franchise basis with approximately one-million voters. The turnout remained low. In Lahore, the turnout was 30 per cent of the listed voters and in rural areas of Punjab it was much lower.
On 8 December 1951 the North West Frontier Province held elections for Provincial legislature seats. In a pattern that would be repeated throughout Pakistan's electoral history, many of those who lost accused the winners of cheating and rigging the elections. Similarly, in May, 1953 elections to the Provincial legislature of Sindh were held and they were also marred by accusations of rigging.
In April 1954, the general elections were held for the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly, in which the Pakistan Muslim League lost to the pan-Bengali nationalistUnited Front Alliance.Incumbent Prime minister of East Pakistan Mr. Nurul Amin lost his parliament seat to a veteran student leader and language movement stalwart Khaleque Nawaz Khan in Mr. Amin's home constituency Nandail of Mymensingh district. Nurul Amin's crushing defeat to young Turk of United front alliance effectively eliminated Pakistan Muslim League from Political landscape of the then East Pakistan.
Political parties performances in General elections under military government(s)
All data and calculations are provided by Election Commission of Pakistan as Public domain. The General elections in 1985 were non-partisan general elections, but many technocrats belong to the one party to another.
General elections from 1977 to 2013
After the loss of East–Pakistan, democracy returned to the country. In 1977, the general elections were held but due to election violence instigated by the right-wing PNA, the martial law took advance against the left oriented PPP.
In 1988, the general elections were held again which marked the PPP coming in power but dismissed in two years following the amid lawlessness situation in the country. In 1990, the general elections saw the right-wing alliance forming the government but dismissed in 1993 after the alliance collapse. The general elections in 1993 saw the PPP forming government after successfully seeking plurality in the Parliament. Prime MinisterBenazir Bhutto made critical decisions during her era, ranging from working to strengthening the education, defense, foreign policy and pressed her policies hard to implement her domestic programs initiatives. Despite her tough rhetoric, Prime Minister Bhutto's own position deteriorated in her native province, Sindh, and lost her support following the death of her younger brother. Tales of high-scale corruption cases also maligned her image in the country and was dismissed from her post by her own hand-picked president in 1996. The 1997 general elections saw the centre-right, PML(N), gaining the exclusive mandate in the country and supermajority in the parliament. Despite Sharif's popularity in 1998 and popular peace initiatives in 1999, the conspiracy was hatched against Sharif by General Musharraf, accusing Sharif of hijacking the plane and pressed terrorism charges against Sharif in the military courts; thus ending Sharif's government.
Ordered by the Supreme Court, General Musharraf held general election in 2002, bearing Sharif and Benazir Bhutto from keeping the public office. With Zafarullah Jamali becoming the Prime minister in 2002, he left the office for Shaukat Aziz in 2004. After the deadly 9/11 attacks in the United States and Musharraf's unconditional policy to support the American war in the Afghanistan, further damaged Musharraf's credibility in the country. In an unsuccessful attempt to dismiss the Judicial system, Musharraf dramatically fall from power. The 2008 general elections allowed the PPP, assisted with the left-wing alliance, further consolidated in opposition to Musharraf, though it was plagued with loadshedding, law and order situation, foreign policy issues, and poor economic performances. In recent elections held in 2013, the PML(N) won the majority seats in the elections and is expected to be forming government in last weeks of May 2013.
Political parties performances in General elections since 1977
All data and calculations are provided by Election Commission of Pakistan as Public domain. All elections were contested under a separate electorate system, the 1990 elections had allegations of vote-rigging confirmed by foreign observers. The 'MQM' contested the 1988 elections under the name Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz, it boycotted the 1993 National elections.
2008 General elections
Main article: Pakistani general election, 2008
This election led to strong showings for the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML-N), who signed the Bhurban Accord in response to the election results.The election was held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008. The original date was intended to elect members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, the lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora (the nation's parliament). Pakistan's two main opposition parties, the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML (N)) won the majority of seats in the election. The PPP and PML(N) formed the new coalition government with Yosaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister of Pakistan.Following the election, Pervez Musharraf acknowledged that the process had been free and fair. He conceded the defeat of the PML (Q) and pledged to work with the new Parliament. The voter turnout for the election was 35,170,435 people (44%). By-elections for 28 seats (23 provincial and 5 national) have been delayed numerous times, with most of them now held on 26 June 2008.
|Parties||Votes||%||Elected seats||Reserved seats (women)||Reserved seats (minorities)||Total||Percentile|
|Pakistan Peoples Party||10,606,486||30.6%||97||23||4||124|
|Pakistan Muslim League (N)||6,781,445||19.6%||71||17||3||91|
|Pakistan Muslim League (Q)||7,989,817||23.0%||42||10||2||54|
|Muttahida Qaumi Movement||2,507,813||7.4%||19||5||1||25|
|Awami National Party||700,479||2.0%||10||3||0||13|
|Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan||772,798||2.2%||6||1||0||7|
|Pakistan Muslim League (F)||4||1||0||5|
|Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)||140,707||0.4%||1||0||0||1|
|National Peoples Party||1||0||0||1|
|Balochistan National Party (Awami)||1||0||0||1|
|Total (turnout 44%) |
Note: Tehreek-e-Insaf, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan and Jamiat Ahle Hadith did not participate.
|Source: Election Commission of Pakistan, Adam Carr's Electoral Archive|
Pakistani general election, 2013
Further information: Pakistani general election, 2013
Presidential elections since 1956
Promulgation of 1956 constitution, Iskandar Ali Mirza became first President of Pakistan; he was also noted of being the first East-PakistaniBengalipresident of Pakistan. In an indirect elections, the electors of the Awami League voted for Mirza's bid for presidency in 1956. Wanting a control democracy, President Mirza dismissed four prime ministers in less than two years and his position in the country was quickly deteriorated amid his actions. In 1958, Mirza imposed the martial law under its enforcer General Ayub Khan, but was also dismissed the same year. Assuming the presidency in 1958, Ayub Khan introduced a "System of Basic Democracy" which mean, "the voters delegate their rights to choose the president and the members of the national and provincial assemblies to 80,000 representatives called Basic Democrats."
Under this system, the first direct presidential election was held on January 2, 1965. Some 80,000 'basic democrats', as members of urban and regional councils, caucused to vote. There were two main contestants: Pakistan Muslim League led by President Ayub Khan and the Combined Opposition Parties (COP) under the leadership of Fatima Jinnah. In this highly controversial election with the means of using the state machinery to rigging the votes, the PML secured a thumping majority of 120 seats while the opposition could clinch only 15 seats. Fatima Jinnah's Combined Opposition Party (COP) only secured 10 seats whereas the NDF won 5 seats in East Pakistan and 1 in West Pakistan. The rest of the seats went to the independents.
Witnessing the events in 1965, the new drafted constitution created the Electoral College system, making the president as mere figurehead. In 1973, Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry became the first president from the PPP in an indirect polling. With the martial law remained effective from 1977 till 1988, civil servant Ghulam Ishaq Khan ran for the presidency on a PPP ticket in a deal to support Benazir Bhutto for presidency. With special powers granted to President GI Khan, he dismissed two elected government during period 1990 and 1993; he too was forced out from the office the same year. After the 1993 general election, the PPP nominated Farooq Leghari who soon secured majority votes in the parliament. Originally elected for five-year term, Leghari was forced resigned from the presidency after forcing out Benazir Bhutto from the government in 1996. In 1997 general election, Nawaz Sharif called for fresh presidential elections and nominated Rafiq Tarar for the presidency. In an indirect election, Tarar received heavy votes from the electors of Electoral College, becoming the first president from the PML(N). In 1999 martial law against Sharif, Musharraf self-pointed for the presidency in 2001. In 2004, he secured his appointment for presidency; though the opposition and religious alliance boycotted the elections. In 2007, Musharraf again restored his appointment after the opposition parties also boycotted the elections. As Musharraf forced out from the power, Asif Zardari of PPP became president after a close presidential elections in 2008. The Pakistani general election of 2013 were held on 11 May 2013. Problems with providing electricity was one of the major issues with the winning candidate, Nawaz Sharif, promising to reform electrical service and provide reliable service.
Political parties performances in Presidential elections since 1971
FI Chaudhy becomes president in 1973 with PPP's support in four provinces.GI Khan was candidate of PPP in return of supporting Benazir Bhutto in 1988. Pervez Musharraf gained political support from PML(Q) as their president in 2004 and 2007; both elections were controversial as leading parties PPP and PML(N) boycotted the elections.
There was a time when monarchy and dictatorship were firmly rooted in the world. However, in course of time, the days of monarchy and dictatorship have gone. Ultimately democracy has triumphed. In the present-day world almost all the countries have democratic form of Government. In democracy, ultimate power of a State lies with the people of that State. People rule their country through their representatives who form the
Government and run the administration on behalf of the people. People choose their representatives by casting votes in their favour. Such act of choosing is known as election. Election in which representatives are chosen in all the constituencies of a state is known as General Election. Pakistan is a democratic country where voters are the electors. On the day of general election, these voters have to go to their respective polling stations to cast their votes. This occurs, generally at the end of every five years.Since independence, Elections in Pakistan have evolved a long way, but all along elections have been a significant cultural aspect of independent Pakistan. Electoral Roll:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Electoral Roll is a list of people or a register of people who have right to vote in the election. Before the occurrence of the General Election, the Electoral Roll is revised and is made up-to-date with the enlistment of the new voters who have attained the age of eighteen years by the time of the General Election. Polling station:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A polling station is a building or such other place where the people go to vote at an election. It is generally a school building taken over for time-being for the purpose of General Election. A presiding officer with his two assistants come to the polling station for a day or so to conduct the election work. Polling agents of the candidates are allowed in the polling station. A polling-box is placed on the table before the eyes of the presiding officer. His two assistants sit on two sides of a table one is with ballots and the electoral roll and the other with indelible ink. The polling box is firmly closed on all sides except a narrow chasm on the top for the ballots to pass through into the polling box. How a voter gives his vote:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">On the appointed day and during the appointed time, a voter goes to his polling station with his photo previously supplied to him by the Election Department. There his name is searched out in the Electoral Roll (Electoral Register) and his photo is verified by the Presiding Officer. Then he takes a ballot, goes into the polling booths, stamps on his chosen picture, folds the ballot in the right way, comes near the Ballot Box and drops the ballot in the Ballot Box. Then an assistant puts the mark of the indelible ink near the nail of the ring-finger of his left hand. Then the voter goes out through the exit. Then another voter comes and follows the same process. In this way, all the voters, present there, cast their respective votes.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Conclusion is that It is a matter of great that ragging, kidnapping, killing and forcibly taking away the ballot-box have been associated with election atmosphere by some jealous ruffians. The general election should be done in a peaceful atmosphere so that people will be able to exercise their franchise.It is also a matter of great regret that the Pakistani students do not keep much information about the general election of our country. They do not like to know anything else except what is there in their text-books or course-books. This is not a good sign for the future of Pakistan.However in this respect, they should follow the example of our great Leaders like Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah , Sir Syed Ahmed Khan , Allama Iqbal and others.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Role of Media in Pakistan<br /> We are living in a media-driven world where we all are influenced by the media messages.In the world of today, media has become almost as necessary as food and clothing. It is true that media is playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society; it’s a mirror of the society. Its duty is to inform, educate and entertain the people. Media plays an important role in setting the agenda of the public. There are numerous but vital roles media performs in society. Of these roles major are discussed in following paragraphs.The agenda setting role of media has been recognized worldwide and a number of research studies have been conducted all over the world to investigate this role of media. Perhaps this study is the first ever research to investigate the agenda setting role of media in Pakistan. The most potent role of media in society is to provide latest information about different happenings. It was the chief objective of media to keep people aware about the whole world, national, and local events and happenings. Today’s media is up to mark by providing all kind information, news, views on different subject‐ social,economic,science,business from different parts the world.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A person sitting in Asia can easily access the information related to Wall Street crisis in America, similarly person sitting in Europe can easily get information about Arab springs or Afghanistan war just because of media. In information context, role of media is not confide to news only, but at same time promoting awareness, education, developing perception and opinion of masses. So role of media as an information provider is most crucial.Awareness and education of masses is a another integral role media is playing. The Pakistani media is an enthusiastic member of the new warrior clan of the 21st century and despite belonging to war-torn country, is playing active role in keeping with the demands of the modern times. Media in Pakistan has been more informative than ever before. Media in country creates genuine public enlightenment about real life issues- Issues that matter such as health, education, sanitation, unemployment, increasing prices of essential commodities and the state of the country and the nation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Media is among the wonders of the twentieth century as it exposes coordinated messages repeatedly to millions of audiences.Impact of Pakistani Medias on general public is very important and sensitive issue for the society and the government. So the conclusion is that Media is fourth pillar, watch dog, educator, informer, guardian of democracy and many more. These titles clearly define the role of media in society. A vibrant media is need of globalised society. Media become crucial like food and clothing likewise it is playing many integral roles in society.Both print and electronic media provides important functions of influencing public opinion, informing with recent developments on all issues, determining the political agenda, awareness, and social & moral development of society. Though media performs crucial functions in a society, but some time its role proved negative. It would not be wrong to say that media is playing vital role to keep the society balance.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A Hot Day ( in Karachi )<br /> Pakistan is a hot country and the Karachi city is more hotter. It begins to get hot in February and the heat continues up to September. In Pakistan/Karachi June and July are the hottest months of the year. The days are cool in the morning but they get hot and hotter as the sun rises high. On a hot day in summer even the morning is very close. There is not a single cloud in the sky. There is no cool breeze and no dew on the grass. The sun rises upon a bare blue sky. The sunrise has no beauty about it. As it rises higher and higher in the sky, it shines more and more brightly. It grows hotter and hotter. The earth is heated like a furnace. Hot winds beings to blow. People mostly shut themselves indoor. Very few people go out. The streets look deserted. You cannot go bare heated and bare-footed on the hot roads. In the cities the rich people lie down under the fans, or sit in front of coolers. They order cold drinks again and again. But the poor people are very miserable. Many of them have to work in the burning rays of the sun. Their bodies are wet with perspiration.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">They drink cold water from earthen pitchers to satisfy their thirst. They play the hand to get relief from heat. The condition of birds and animals is equally bad. Poor creatures try to seek shelter in some sandy nook. They pant continuously for breath. The buffaloes black in color, feel hotter than other animals. They keep lying in some pond or tank, if one is availed. The plants and trees look withered. The grass is pale and dry. The roads and streets are generally deserted from 12 p.m to 4 p.m. The heat continues till evening. It begins to lessen towards the evening. At about sunset it gets a little cool. People begin to move about.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The spell of silence of the streets is broken by the shouts of street hawkers and ice-cream sellers. The streets and roads come back to life. They are crowded again. Towards the evening, there are signs of life and activity in the buzzards and streets. People go out for walks. Public gardens are gain crowed with boys and girls who run about on the soft grass. The roads once more present a lovely scene. At night it is often close and stuffy. But sometimes a cool breeze comes to give relief to trouble of people. Many go out to well for taking bath. A hot day may close with a dust storm or a shower of rain which brings great relief to the people. In town and cities there is a scarcity of water. The condition of the people on a hot day becomes more pitiable. The sufferings of people for want of good drinking water in Internal Sindh are very acute. The ponds are all dried up.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Traffic Hazzards<br /> Karachi is one of the biggest cities in Pakistan as well as it is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. It is not surprising that the city faces many social problems because of population that is constantly increasing. Various traffic problems and hazards are one of the biggest concerns in Karachi. Traffic problem are fast growing in Karachi due to open violation of traffic rules.Public transport drivers stop their vehicles at unauthorized bus stops ,even on busy roads with no indication to pick and drop passengers.This practise continues unchecked and has also led to fatal accidents.Traffic jams are seen on every major road during peak hours as the motorists do not follow the traffic rules.They do not stay in their lanes and some of them even ignore the red light signals. The traffic situation in Karachi is getting worse with each passing day.On one hand Vehicles are increasing exponentially and on the other, roads are blocked because of the mega development drive of the City District Government of Karachi.One of the reason for all traffic jams and mishaps in Karachi is the lack of civic sense in drivers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Most drivers are either unaware of traffic rules or simply do not bother with them. Jumping lanes, overtaking, speeding, cutting signals and cursing are the norm. following the rules is definitely not our strong suit, but one hopes that Karachi can finally recognize that road rules exist for a reason to save lives. It is observed that motorists continue to drive without turning on headlights even after sunsets and nobody checks them.Even motor cyclists and rickshaws drivers do not feel the need to turn on their indicators before taking a turn .similarly,many vehicles have headlights,brake and reverse lights that are out-of-order but there is no check on them.Illegal stalls,bazaarsand automobile markets in many areas of Karachi are another cause of major traffic hazzards Saddar,Empress Market,Burns road,Tower and lighthouse are the most polluted area of the Karachi city.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Especially heavy buses in Saddar create traffic jams when their drivers park them right in the middle of the road ro pick up passengers.They do not care to give way to others. The number of fatal road accidents have also increased in Karachi because of speeding and recklace driving.The marking done on the roads has been washed out and the roads themselves have also been damages during the recent torrented rains. The number of fatal road accidents have also increased in Karachi because of speeding and recklace driving.The marking done on the roads has been washed out and the roads themselves have also been damages during the recent torrented rains.It is very unfortunate that even fourty five years of our indpendence,we have not been able to solve the transport problem of Karachi. Patriotism</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Patriotism is a great force. It brings the people of a country closer. It makes them have common aims. It makes them feel that they have to live and die together. Patriotism saves man from a life of bondage 1 and disgrace. It is thus his life blood. It was for this patriotic feelings-that Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler failed to conquer the whole world and make all the people their slaves. Inspite of their indomitable will and courage, unlimited resources and vast army, they failed to achieve their end. The patriotic feeling of the peoples were too strong for them. Patriotism is a quality of high virtue. A man who has no love for his country- who has no patriotism – is a man without soul. Patriotism does not mean that one should be loyal to one’s country and do whatever he pleases for his selfish ends. A patriot sacrifices all his personal interest for the welfare of his c ountry. Patriotism includes every efforts for the welfare of people and name and glory of land. A narrow concept of patriotism is dangerous. It leads to fatal wars and world wild tension.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">We should not think that our country is superior to others and has a right to dominate them. A number of wars have been the result of such an attitude. A healthy sense of patriotism will never permit the people to do for others what they do not want to be done to themselves. Nationalism is not patriotism. Many political leaders excite the people just to have cheap popularity. Under the cover of nationalism they lead the nation in the wrong direction. So we should be careful about the healthy growth of this feeling. We groaned under the heels of the British for about two hundred years. But we are now free. But we should not forget that there are greedy eyes all around. We should, therefore, love our hard-earned Pakistan most ardently. Science Science has made tremendous advancement in different sphere of life. It has completely changed the face of the earth. If the dead souls could raise from their graves and the see the marvels of our time they would be simply bewildered and amazed. The goddess of science has blessed us with one hand but its demerits are no less significant.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">New scientific inventions have revolutionized human life. The whole society has undergone manifold changes. Time and space have been conquered and long distances have been narrowed down. Explorations in space have opened new vistas for the study of man. Many new medicines have come to our rescue. It is now possible to prevent many infectious diseases. The longevity of life has increased. Science also provides entertainment to millions of people. In agriculture, the use of fertilizer, manure and latest methods of fanning are sure to increase our foodstuff, ten times more. So also industry has also made gigantic strides with the help of latest machines, now in operation everywhere. The forces of nature have become our slaves. The discovery of steam power and electricity has worked wonders in all walks of life. The world is marching towards happiness and comforts. With thy help of science, a new civilization has emerged. In our houses, offices and market places, we see the wonders of science. But there is nothing like unmixed good in the world.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Human life itself, as Shakespeare says, is but “a mingled yarn – good and ill together” The ugly yarn which science has woven in the garments of human personality are not negligible .Machines have snatched away from us the calm of mind and peacefulness of our environment. We are surrounded by a perpetual bad atmosphere, noise and unrest. We are badly caught in the entangling apparatus of money and machinery. Science has, no doubt provided us with enormous stock of knowledge but it has failed to guide us as how to put it to the best use. The moral development of man has been totally neglected. As a result of this, we have more knowledge and skill but less character and self-control. If the people are balanced and self-controlled, then the use of scientific knowledge will certainly produce good result. But a wrong use will certainly make our lives very miserable. In the use of scientific knowledge a balance should be maintained. The side of character and self-control should never be neglected otherwise the whole civilization will be destroyed.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Computer<br /> We are living in an age of science and technology. We see many wonderful inventions. Their number is increasing day by day. These inventions have made our life easy, comfortable and interesting. The computer is one of the most wonderful modern inventions. It is an automatic electronic machine. It is very useful for calculations. It solved mathematical problems. Computer has brought about an amazing revolution In the life around In the present day world. Its use, now It so seems, has become a necessity, and has created for itself Indispensability.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Whether one goes to a railway station or to an airport for reservations; goes to the market for purchases or to any bank to withdraw money or to known the balance of a person’s account on the table or the counter is the computer telling one in no time all the details that a person wants to know. Today, the use of computers is common. They are used in bank, industries, hospitals and examining boards etc. they have become a part of modern life. They work without rest. They don’t make mistake. The aim of these machines is to save time and labor of a man. Today, the use of computers is common. They are used in bank, industries, hospitals and examining boards etc. they have become a part of modern life. They work without rest. They don’t make mistake. The aim of these machines is to save time and labor of a man.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Cricket Match Betweeen Pakistan and India OR E xciting Cricket Match!!!!! Cricket is very interesting outdoor game. I am very fond of playing cricket, and I am a member of our school eleven. I am equally fond of watching a really good match. The other day I went to see a very fine match between the India and Pakistan. It was a fine day. A large number of people had gathered to witness the cricket match in the National Stadium. The captain of the Pakistan team won the toss and elected to bat, and the Indian team took the field. The two batsmen who went in first were quite good players. One was a good hitter, and punished the ball and all over the field whenever he got it. The other was very careful, and most of the time simply blocked.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">He did not care for the runs. The bowling was strong, and the boy who played a steady game was not able to score at single run for the first fifteen minutes, but the other was securing them rapidly. But he soon paid for it; he was caught out smartly at mid off. The next four players were dismissed very quickly – two bowled, one caught out and one out leg-before wickets. All of us thought that the Pakistan team would soon be all out. The score stood at fifty. However, the captain made a stand and, with the help of the steady boy who kept in with his blocking, was able to pull up the score to a hundred. The captain played very cautiously but before he could make some more runs, he was run out. The whole eleven were out for 150 runs. We felt that the Pakistani team would lose the match, but Indian team did not have such an easy time as we expected. The Pakistani team had two very good bowlers – one very fast, and the other spinner; and they gave their opponents a very tough time. The Indian team made rather a poor start.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Their first wicket fell in about ten minutes when the score was only ten. However, their captain cheered them up and made a great stand when he was caught out at 70. Then their wickets began to fall quickly. The game seemed to point to a defeat for the Indian team. But when their ninth and tenth player came to bat, their hopes revived, they hit and drove one of the fast scores reached a hundred. At last one fine catch sent one of the fast scores off the field. But the last man was a daring batsman whose two hits won applause from the crowd. They had now only thirteen runs to make a win the match. They struggle for runs, and great was the joy of the Indian team when the score stood at 115. But as ill luck would have it, one slow ball tempted the player to hit a six but he was clean bowled. The Indian team loss the match by five runs only. It has been agreed that it should be a one innings match, so this meant victory for the Pakistani team. But though the Indian team lost the match they gave an exhibition of some fine cricket. Electricity Crises</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Electricity is the major force behind any country.Agriculture, IT, industry, houses each and everything is run by electricity. Its major force of change a necessity now without which a country cannot be consider even to start thinking of development.Pakistanhas been hit by worst electricity crises it sees in years. Without electricity our industry, agriculture each and every department. The power crises started in the year 2006 and continued 2007. During these years, electricity shortage reached the figure of 2,546 MW during the summer season of 2007. As part of its efforts to deal with the countrywide power crisis, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has disconnected electricity supply to billboards while alternate streetlight points remain switched off. Electricity is not being provided for ornamental, ceremonial and entertainment purposes or events in the city.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">To further conserve electricity WAPDA has ordered markets to close early, which is why power remains suspended in markets between 5:30 pm and 7:30 pm as well as between 8:30 pm and 9:30 pm. Their social activities have been restricted because of irregular power supply. At home household chores, schoolwork , primetime TV viewing, food preparation, all have to be put on hold when the electricity goes out several times during the day. Moreover, the security situation in the wake of rising suicide bombings and instability in the country demands that the streets remain well lit. the law-enforcement agencies, though vigilant, need certain amenities to carry out their work more efficiently.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Yet in the absence of proper street lighting, the police face difficulties guarding against street crime while the public feels increase taking dark routes or streets. The most important step that can be helpful on a personal level and for one’s own household is to always turn off extra lights and use the least amount of energy in the few hours that the electricity is actually available. This is a good way of saving because majority of the houses started to watch how and where they spend their energy it would make a great difference in the overall outcome. If the energy crises continues, it will only add to people’s miseries and further disrupt daily lives and businesses. Nonetheless, it seems that whether the situation continues for the rest of the winter or is rectified sooner, people will not need to acclimatize anew to load shedding in the summer. This is the only upside of this gloomy situation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">My Aim in Life<br /> Different people have different ambitions. Some want to be rich, some wish to become leaders of the country to gain honor. Some desire to be great scientists. There are others who are mainly led by a spirit of adventure. The latest craze among young boys and girls is to go to foreign countries. Their aim in life is to earn a lot of money within a short period. I am a human being. I too have my own ambition.My ambition in life is not wealth, power or high social status. I am too modest a young man to aim at any of these things. My ambition is simple enough. It is the service of the poor and the down-trodden. Even since I attained adolescence, it has been my joy to help those who are in trouble. Many a time I have left my work at the weeping of the neighbors. I have spent hours and hours together to remove the cause of their sorrow. My heart weeps at the sight of people in trouble. I do my best to help those who need my help. And what a joy it is to me to find those who need my help. And what a joy it is to me to find that I have been of service to some one.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">To work for others gives me a sort of peace of mind. This being the case I have decided once for all to spend the rest of my life in the services of the suffering people. My ambition is to become a good doctor. For this purpose I have made up my mind to join a good medical college after passing Pre-medical Examination. I am determined to be a doctor. I shall be a doctor, different from the doctor who grows fat at the expenses of others. I shall never be on the lookout for fresh cases. I take oath not to fleece my patients of their hard earned wealth. I am sorry to find doctors who deceive their sick brethren. Doctor’s business is after all services and I am determined to do so. As a doctor it will be my object to charge only reasonable money for the medicines or medicines supplied to my patients. I do not want to collect any wealth for myself. I need money only for my bare necessities. This money I shall be able to have by having a good practice. I shall work hard. I shall earn reputation of being a good all-round doctor. It is clear from what I have written that service of humanity will be my motto. I shall not run after riches. I shall always help the poor and needy. May God help me to achieve it!</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Importance of Religion<br /> The service and adoration of God as expressed in forms of worship, in obedience to divine commands and in the pursuit of a way of life regarded as incumbent on true believers is called religion. Nearly every religion of the world gives the moral education and code of conduct. A religion gives a set of beliefs which not only produce happiness in personal life but also produce an atmosphere of mutual co-operation and unity. No religion teaches the education of hate. Religion is a powerful source for the implementation of laws in a society. The people of a society who follow the rules of a same religion pass their lives according to the teachings of that religion them they became strong and thus they constitute a powerful nation which produces its own identity. There is a great importance of religion in one’s life that it gives some basic rules of life by which individual and social training of a person is possible. It gives a power to resist against evil forces in the world. It gives strength to bear the difficulties of life. It gives firm faith and saves a person from ego.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">It cultivates the moral qualities which finally bring a peaceful co-operation in a society. Religion forms the individual and social life and cultivates the feeling of sympathy, love and devotion. This is the reason that religion is considered as a powerful source of building up a nation and society. Allama Iqbal said that religion builds up a nation, if there is no religion exists, then there vil1 be no nation and if the nation does not exist them the progress will not be possible. It is cleared from the above discussion that religion is the only way which not only produces fear but arranges the individual life. If the individual life of every person is organized then whole nation become organized and both organized nation and or2nizcd society can achieve quick progress and peace in the world. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was born inKarachion the 25th December, 1876. His father, Jinnah Poonjah, was a big merchant of Karachi.Mr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah received his early education in Karachi and Bombay. He passed his Matriculation Examination in 1891. Mr. Jinnah left for England in 1892. There he was admitted into the Lincoln’s Inn and obtained the degree of Bar-at-Law.After having successfully finished his education, Mr. Jinnah returned to India in 1896. In 1905, Mr. Jinnah came in close contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Mr. Gokhale was then the president of the Indian National Congress.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Soon he became its most important leader.But he then realised that the only object of the Congress was to establish Hindu rule in India. He, therefore, separated himself from the Congress. He devoted himself in organising the Muslims. The Muslims were then at their bad. His,leadership, kindled a new-imagination among the frustrated Muslims. He created political consciousness among the Muslims of India. It was due to his guidance and leadership the Muslims regained their confidence. Each and every Muslim responded to his clarion call. And they, with one voice demanded a separate homeland for them.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The creation of Pakistan was due to the untiring labour and zeal of Quaid-i-Azam. He won Pakistan by his irrefutable arguments. He is called the “Father of the Nation”. For like a father, he acquired a homeland for us.>Though in shattered health, he had to accept the first Governor-Generalship of Pakistan. He died in harness on the 11th September, 1948. War Against Terrorism</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">God has created this beautiful world with immense love and kindness. With Enormous affection Allah Almighty has given birth to his lovable creatures. He has given multiple colors to this world. He has formed Rivers, Oceans, Mountains, Stars and several other creations for the pleasure of mankind. All are made for the gratification of human beings. Unfortunately, Human beings did not understand the motives of the creation of this world. Destruction and turmoil have become the fashion of the day. Terrorism is the gravest foam of destruction and disaster. It damages the internal as well as external infrastructure of every country. Insecurity and mental pressure have created a sense of self deprivation among masses. Terrorism and terrorists are defined as people who cause death and destruction through means of bombs and hostage taking who bassically cause terror for religious reasons or another cause they see just.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of all forms of terrorism—including bioterrorism— is to create fear and intimidate individuals, governments, or societies into capitulating to terrorists’ religious, political, or ideological demands. The terrorists’ goal is not to cause massive death or destruction but to inspire panic within a population. The War on Terror was started by the events of September 11th, 2001 and july 7th, 2005.The War on Terror has made the people world feel as is they are in a dangerous place, especially those of Islamic faith, and has created a counter-terrorism oriented foreign policy. There are a few former world leaders who started the War on Terror, and many organizations that have responded to the reaction of global terrorism, but, above all, the War on Terror has taken away our rights as humans. This War on Terror really is a War on Freedom.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Flood Problem Essay<br /> Floods are common in Pakistan as it is the land of fine rivers. In the monsoon season, heavy rains along with melting of snow become major cause of flood in the region. Punjab and Sindh get affected by flood chiefly. Flood is a natural calamity and brings destruction to human life. It damages properties, farms, etc., of thousands of people living near river banks. During the last decade, floods become more frequent. They destroy whole villages and kill hundreds of people and animals. Roads are the major mean of transport, they also get badly affected. Army always manages to support and help the victims. People also make donations on large scale but that is not enough. It has now become the problem of every year almost and government should make plans to stop this natural disaster. Dams should be made and different means must be followed to transport the water in the areas where famine is common. We can turn this menace into blessing if we want but we have to work hard for that.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Role of Newspaper Essay<br /> News and magazines play important role in a national life. They continue news as well as views. They are necessary not only to know what is happening in the country but also to know what is going around the world. In past, we had only few newspapers; but now, we have numerous newspapers and magazines. They are in English and in Urdu. There are also newspapers that are published in the native regional language. Reading a newspaper everyday is a good habit as you will get the knowingness of the surroundings and also your general knowledge improves. Newspapers keep check on government and report about social issues like poverty, ignorance, injustice etc. In one way, it is also a platform to share public opinions. Not only reporting, but newspapers are also a major mean of education. It has information that is beneficial to industrialists, traders, businessmen and also students. Press is renowned as 4th house of the parliament because of the things it does.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">My Hobby Essay<br /> Hobby is the way of passing spare time. Hobby of the person is dependent on his will. Reading, gardening, photography and music listening are some common and famous hobbies. A hobby of one can be a profession of others like photography or painting. People also earn through their hobby. My hobby is Gardening I have been doing it for years. I love nature and it is my best way to stay close to it. I like to add new plants in my garden often. I have vegetables, fruits and flowers in my garden. In flowers, I have jasmine and roses of many colors. I have recently added tulips also. I have plants of tomato, chili, lemon, mango and banana in my garden. Plants are known as the lungs of the earth and they keep the environment clean. My hobby is beneficial to the environment too. We not only get fresh vegetables and fruits but also enjoy fresh air. I have adopted this hobby because people say gardening gives you peace of mind when I practiced it have come to know that they said the truth.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Importance of Female Education Essay<br /> Education is the right of every human; it is the basic necessity and no country can progress without adopting modern educational system. It is the shield against ignorance which is the greatest enemy of man. It is necessary that every male and female of the country must know how to read and write. In our country, only few women can do this job. Mostly, women living in cities are the ones who go to school colleges and universities and in village they hardly complete primary school which is an alarming condition. The four major roles play by the women in society are: daughter, sister, wife and mother. An educated mother can up bring children better than uneducated mother as she knows the importance of education An educated female is a great asset to her family and nation. She is dutiful, bold and cultured. She fights hardships of in much better way than the uneducated female. Our government must devise ways so that every women living in the country can enjoy being educated and in turn, this act can help the society in many ways</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Essay<br /> Computers have revolutionized our world. Now modern concept of living is incomplete without internet and computer use. Not only official lives but personal lives of people have been affected greatly by them.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Internet has now become the major source of communication and getting information. Numerous websites and e-books are available online from where people can study about every aspect of life. Through social media, connecting with friends and family living far away has become easy. Not only information but it is also a major provider of entertainment now. Movies, Music etc all are present online.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">When a thing has so many advantages, it also necessarily has few disadvantages. The over-excessive use of internet produces negative impact on a person. As all the things are just a click away, if not used properly, it can be a greater way to waste time.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Getting advantage from this blessing is entirely on the person’s hand. One who uses it with care can enjoy great many benefits and one who just wastes time here is getting disadvantages only.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A Good Student Essay OR DUTIES OF A GOOD STUDENT OR Role of a Student in Society Essay or duties of student Everybody has special rights and responsibilities and it is necessary that we must carry out these duties honestly. Students also have special part in the society. They are young, energetic and smart, so they can easily achieve a lot and can do many things for the society. The foremost duty of the students is to study hard. This first duty is not only beneficial for them but also for whole society, as it can help them to serve the country in the future as a professional. They must not involve in politics and other ill activities. It is the responsibility of the students to keep their surrounding neat and clean and to teach others to do the same. They must take part in social welfare programs and utilize their energy in helping others. Students must follow all the rules and regulation of a school and country. The must respect their teachers and elders. A good student is an asset who helps to build a strong nation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Student is a person who learns and for this purpose, he visits schools, colleges, universities and other institutes. A person’s life is a big school itself on which we learn at every step. Every student is not same. Some follow all the rules while some don’t want to study and some waste their entire time in playing. School time is the period where character of a person builds. Students who are good in this period, do best in the future and who are dull, find it hard to establish in life. The foremost duty of a good student is to study and work hard. An ideal student also manages playing with the study to stay healthy and fit. He goes to school daily and always remains punctual. He takes all his lessons quietly. He is the obedient student who respects teachers and elders. He is also good with his class fellows and his juniors. An ideal student considers book as his best friend. He is hard working and honest. He co-operates with others. He never uses unfair means to pass his exam. A good student is the good citizen of the future on which a nation can be proud. A good student is the one who balances his studies with sports and extra-curricular activities and tries to be the best in all.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Time Not Spent in Studying is the Time Wasted Essay<br /> Time is the money that once lost cannot be regained. A student is a person who is studying and time is the most precious thing he owns. It is said that “Time not spent in studying is time wasted,” but I think sports and entertainment is also important along with the studies “All work and no play makes jack a dull boy” Playing is as important as studying for a student because it gives mental peace and provides strength and good health to the body. Time is wasted only when there is only playing and no studying; so, it is necessary for a student to make a good use of the day. A student must divide the time of playing and studying. The morning time is best studying time because at that time, mind is fresh and calm. As the day passes, brain also tires along with the body. A student must set morning time for studying and evening time for playing. So a time not spent in studying is not the time wasted, if it is used in playing and other extra-curricular activities that are constructive for mind.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Essay health is wealth<br /> Health is wealth everybody knows, but achieving this wealth is not easy. Having good health can help us in every aspect of life. A healthy person can practice good citizenship, enjoy studies, work efficiently, and above all he can enjoy life. Maintaining good health requires adaptation of few good practices and leaving some bad ones. The foremost thing necessary to maintain a hale and hearty life is to eat healthy. Eating healthy includes adding fruits and vegetable in diet, leaving junk food, eating home-made food and drinking lots of water. Along with healthy eating, maintaining good hygiene and including exercise in daily routine is essential. Walking whenever possible is also a good form of exercise. Maintaining sleeping hours is also important for getting good health. Everyone must have sound sleep of seven to eight hours daily to improve the brain functioning. Taking daily baths, washing hands before and after meals, going to a picnic, wearing tidy clothes, taking routine medical checkups, going to dentist for proper oral health are few of the other things that can help to maintain good health.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Pollution Essay<br /> Pollution is introducing contaminants in the natural environment that affect it adversely. It is the major issue of the present century as it is leading the world towards the situation that is influencing every single living being on Earth. Pollution can be in the form of energy and chemical substances. Air pollution, water pollution, light pollution, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution and soil contamination are the major forms of pollution. Increasing pollution, day by day, is leading humans and their surroundings structures towards destruction. It is causing unfavorable and permanent damage to many places that has destroyed the natural habitat of many species. Some species have been extinct and some are about to extinct because of pollution. Major contributors of pollution are emission of toxic gases from factories and vehicles, toxic and unprocessed toxic water waste from manufacturing companies, untreated discharge of wastes of factories and households in lakes and rivers, oil spilling from ships, burning of household garbage and many more. Not only big companies but every individual is contributing in increasing pollution.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Every single person can work for lowering the pollution. As an individual, we must avoid using car when travelling alone; using public transport can reduce air pollution. By dumping waste in the government provided areas for waste disposal can lower air pollution. Using paper bags over plastic bags, recycling the household materials, planting trees are some of the other practices that we must follow. There are many things that we can still do to make our environment healthy again. We all must stand together to stop the pollution before the damage become permanent.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Responsibilities of a Good Citizen Essay<br /> We all live in one country or other and our birth makes us the citizen of that country. Our country gives us identity and in turn, it is our responsibility to be a good citizen. There are some responsibilities of the good citizen that every person must follow. These responsibilities don’t only improve our surroundings but also give inner peace.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">A good citizen is the one who is helpful and broad minded. He stays calm and doesn’t make life of others harder. It is the responsibility of every person to keep its area clean, so a good citizen never throws trash on the streets. He helps others in every way possible. He remains nice and fair to his neighbors. A good citizen is not a mischief maker. The thing that makes any person a good citizen is its sense of ownership for the country. He doesn’t waste electricity and water; he only uses the amount necessary for him and leaves the rest to use by others. He never damages any public property and also stops other to harm any of the national structure. Good citizen is the one who abides by all the rules and laws of the country. He pays tax and also uses his right when it’s time to vote.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">If explained simply, a good citizen is the one who is a true gentleman and he doesn’t follow good practices alone but also teaches others to do the same. “Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can have.”Winston JOLI</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Essay: My Aim In Life (to be a Fine Artist)</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">“If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things.” Albert Einstein It is well-said by Albert Einstein. To have a good life, it is essential to set a goal and start working on it from the beginning. Whatever we aim for, our lives should be designed around it. Some people aim to become doctor and some want to be engineer. Every goal is achieveable if we work hard. I am always inspired by my surroundings and have a different view of things. I want to show my perspective to the world in the most beautiful way so I want to be a fine artist. I love how nature has colored the world and I want to add these colors in my paintings. One inspiring story can bring so many powerful changes in one’s life. I want to tell these stories with my paint brush. Art is the language which is understood by every person living in this world. With my paintings, I want to give the message of peace and love that my country holds. I can bring so many changes with the power of my creations. Pakistan is the land of art and so many renowned artists belong to our country. I am working hard to learn the basics now and in the near future, I will get what I desire. I know I can achieve my goal because I strive day and night to make my dreams come true.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Educational Problems In Pakistan (Essay)</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” Nelson Mandela</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Education is the basic right of every human being. It is the power that drags a person from darkness of illiteracy into the light of knowingness. In general sense, education is the transferring of knowledge, habits and skills from one generation to the next. However, in our country, education is taken as the art of getting knowledge from the books only. This is the foremost reason of educational downfall in Pakistan. There are many factors that are contributing to the destruction of education in Pakistan; government negligence, poverty, class discrimination, and poor education system are the top ones. In the last few decades, many primary and secondary government schools have been developed in cities and villages and they are providing free education but their standard is no match with the schools of private sectors. In public schools, many students get enrolled every year but the school administration doesn’t care for the daily attendance. In government schools, students don’t get proper education as many government school teachers don’t bother to pay visit to the school and the students who go to these schools often don’t get educated in the way they deserve.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This problem can only be solved with the involvement of government. It should take initiatives to control the attendance of the teachers at school. Another big problem is the class discrimination that can be seen in the educational system of Pakistan also. Our elite class, which includes our ministers and officials, send their children to some best private schools. So the people with the power don’t concern with the poor educational system of the government schools. The rise of poverty in Pakistan is forcing every single person of the house to work, as parents’ wages are low to support the whole family.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">When a poor has nothing to eat, how can he think about the education of his children. In this alarming situation, it is necessary for the government to introduce beneficial policies for the poor that can help them to educate their families. As the less privileged people are in the majority, government should help them in education so they can be fruitful for Pakistan in the future. There is a huge list of educational problems in Pakistan. We don’t have the power to change the system, but we can change ourselves. If we can afford, we should take the responsibility to teach at least one child who is illiterate. We can give tuition to the ones who are going to the government schools. Sitting and condemning government cannot bring change; we can also do a lot! Games and Sports in Student’s life</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Physical and mental fitness is essential for every person. Students have very busy schedule and they often get tired from it. To perform best, it is necessary to have a sound mind in a sound body and for that games should also be played with study.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Sport gives physical strength whereas game increases mental power. Sports like cricket, football, hockey improve physical health and mental fitness can be achieved by games like chess, brain games, Sudoku etc. They make body fit and help us to perform well. They teach us team work that is helpful in student as well as professional life. The sense of brotherhood makes us care for others .</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Sports build one’s behavior in such a way that he/she is able to accept defeat with victory which produces positive approach towards life. They make us able to think in stressed condition that makes our mind sharp. Researchers find out that the students who play games and have good performance in sport; they also do well in exams.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Sports and games should be made a part of life to make mind and body healthy. Students should manage their time for study as well as sports if they want to perform well. Recent scientific studies have proven that students, who give equal importance to games along with studies, are achievers in professional life as compared to those who neglect sports. Flood in Pakistan</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Flood is the natural disaster which causes massive destruction by over flowing of water. This huge amount of water come from heavy rain falls and snow melting that burden the rivers and results in flood. Floods are common in Pakistan and affect Sindh and Punjab most. Monsoon season brings lots of heavy rainfall that increases water level of rivers of Sindh and Punjab and river basins sink into water.Whenever it comes it takes away many precious lives, take homes of many poor and left people in misery. Flood take away many houses of people, they are forced to live under open sky. The shortage of clean water and food takes away lives of many. The other major problem arise is the spreading of diseases. Water borne diseases become common and lack of medicine makes situation worse. Infrastructure damage causes transportation problems. People get stuck in their places until the rescue team arrives through helicopters or boats. Natural disasters are not in the hand of man. They can’t stop them but can take measures to reduce the damage. Properties loss is amendable but a life loss is a loss forever. Government does take some action for it, but bringing back the life as it used to be takes years.</p>