Value Judgements Critical Thinking

One of my colleagues does her research on strategic thinking and in one of our conversations we discussed what is critical thinking, and how is it different from other concepts that are commonly used in management and leadership education. I chanced upon the research by Heather A. Butler (California State University Dominguez Hills) on the difference between intelligence and critical thinking. In this piece provocatively titled, Why do Smart People do Foolish Things?, she argues that intelligence and critical thinking are different. In this blog post, I will discuss how intelligent people should/ can acquire critical thinking skills.

Intelligence vs. critical thinking

Intelligence is measured through standardized tests like the IQ test that measures skills like visuo-spatial skills, calculations, pattern recognition, vocabulary and diction, and memory. Intelligence therefore, arms people with the ability to solve problems.

Critical thinking on the other hand is the ability to rationally think in a goal-oriented fashion, and a disposition to use those skills when appropriate. It has been defined as “the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analysing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness” (Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, 1987). In simple words, critical thinking is about questioning both information and beliefs, and using that questioning to guide behaviour. It is that ability to ensure the quality and consistency of information that forms the bedrock of critical thinking. While intelligence is about pattern-seeking and projection, critical thinking is about questioning the quality of information.

What intelligence creates is smartness. But that does not ensure that smart people don’t do stupid/ foolish things. Who hasn’t heard of intelligent Albert Einstein cutting two holes in the door for large cats and small cats? I am not going to tell any stories of all those stupid and foolish things I have done! If you were waiting for it, I am equally flattered (thank you for acknowledging that I am intelligent!), but I am going to disappoint you.

Developing critical thinking skills

Critical thinking creates rational thinking. The way a critical thinker would solve problems would be very different than someone with just intelligence. I conceptualize critical thinking as a skill over and above basic intelligence. Critical thinking encompasses “reflective and reasonable thinking” that is focused on defining “what to believe or do”. Defining “what to believe and do” requires three core skills – deduction, induction, and value-judging. Deduction is the process of making inferences based on a general statement, a set of hypotheses, and statements. The inference is based on a general theory of science, and is a top-down process. So, what is true of a class of things/ events in general, is true for each of the components. Therefore, if you were a German, you would be punctual.

Induction on the other hand, is bottom-up; where a set of data and observations from the ground will help make the inference. Data is collected, patterns sought, and from these patterns the theory is generalized. The key in inductive inference making is the collection of right quality and quantity of data to make good inferences.

The third and most important component of critical thinking skills is value judging. While it is easy to teach and train people on deductive and inductive reasoning, value judging is very difficult. Value judgement is an assessment of something good or bad, given one’s realities and priorities. At the definitional level, value judgements are made independent of data – these are value judgements. However, critical thinking as a competence integrates deduction (top-down inference making), induction (bottom-up inference making), and value judgements (assessment of good or bad).

As we define value judgements as “a choice of what we like or want” or “what is good or bad in this context”, it is very difficult to teach in a classroom, through any of traditional methods. In-situ experiential methods are required to train someone on making robust value judgements. Internships, externships, and apprenticeships are some useful methods for teaching/ training value judgements. Do you now realize why certain professions are called ‘practice’ – like law, consulting, or accounting?

Why should I learn critical thinking?

Critical thinking helps you in many ways. One, it helps you remain goal-directed. Armed with critical thinking skills, everyone will collect, collate, and make inferences based on what is good/ desirable for them. In the absence of critical thinking (all of deductive-inductive-value judgement or DIVj), one might not be able to make inferences in relation to the goal. For instance, if my objective is to choose an investment plan, I need to surely invest in a manner that matches my financial goals; and DIVj surely helps.

Two, critical thinking allows you to be flexible thinkers and evolve into amiable sceptics. It would not be easy to convince you in the absence of good theory (deductive), solid data (inductive), or goal-directed behaviour (value judgements). You are most unlikely to be swayed away by mob beliefs and unscientific arguments.

Three, critical thinking helps you be aware and accept your conscious and unconscious biases (including hindsight and confirmation biases).

Practising critical thinking

It is therefore important for you as a smart person to learn and practise critical thinking. Practising critical thinking is about consciously using deductive, inductive and value judgements. I know a lot of managers we train at our business schools with deductive and inductive skills, but much less of value judgements. One of my favourite arguments for the case method of learning is that it is the closest it gets to training people to make value judgements (read my earlier post on Judgements).

Some may argue that intelligence is part genetic and you may be born with or without intelligence. On the other hand, critical thinking is surely developed; albeit only through conscious efforts. Here’s calling all intelligent and smart people: to go out there and acquire/ practise critical thinking.

(c) 2017. R Srinivasan

 

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Why Critical Thinking?

The Problem

Everyone thinks. It is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or downright prejudiced. Yet, the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.


A Definition

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.

To Analyze Thinking

Identify its purpose, and question at issue, as well as its information, inferences(s), assumptions, implications, main concept(s), and point of view.

To Assess Thinking

Check it for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, logic, and fairness.

The Result

A well-cultivated critical thinker:

  • Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely
  • Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively
  • Comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards
  • Thinks openmindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as needs be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences
  • Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems


The Etymology & Dictionary Definition of "Critical Thinking"

The concept of critical thinking we adhere to reflects a concept embedded not only in a core body of research over the last 30 to 50 years but also derived from roots in ancient Greek. The word ’’critical’’ derives etymologically from two Greek roots: "kriticos" (meaning discerning judgment) and "kriterion" (meaning standards). Etymologically, then, the word implies the development of "discerning judgment based on standards."

In Webster’s New World Dictionary, the relevant entry reads "characterized by careful analysis and judgment" and is followed by the gloss, "critical — in its strictest sense — implies an attempt at objective judgment so as to determine both merits and faults." Applied to thinking, then, we might provisionally define critical thinking as thinking that explicitly aims at well-founded judgment and hence utilizes appropriate evaluative standards in the attempt to determine the true worth, merit, or value of something.

The tradition of research into critical thinking reflects the common perception that human thinking left to itself often gravitates toward prejudice, over-generalization, common fallacies, self-deception, rigidity, and narrowness.

The critical thinking tradition seeks ways of understanding the mind and then training the intellect so that such "errors", "blunders", and "distortions" of thought are minimized. It assumes that the capacity of humans for good reasoning can be nurtured and developed by an educational process aimed directly at that end.

The history of critical thinking documents the development of this insight in a variety of subject matter domains and in a variety of social situations. Each major dimension of critical thinking has been carved out in intellectual debate and dispute through 2400 years of intellectual history.

That history allows us to distinguish two contradictory intellectual tendencies: a tendency on the part of the large majority to uncritically accept whatever was presently believed as more or less eternal truth and a conflicting tendency on the part of a small minority — those who thought critically — to systematically question what was commonly accepted and seek, as a result, to establish sounder, more reflective criteria and standards for judging what it does and does not make sense to accept as true.

Our basic concept of critical thinking is, at root, simple. We could define it as the art of taking charge of your own mind. Its value is also at root simple: if we can take charge of our own minds, we can take charge of our lives; we can improve them, bringing them under our self command and direction. Of course, this requires that we learn self-discipline and the art of self-examination. This involves becoming interested in how our minds work, how we can monitor, fine tune, and modify their operations for the better. It involves getting into the habit of reflectively examining our impulsive and accustomed ways of thinking and acting in every dimension of our lives.

All that we do, we do on the basis of some motivations or reasons. But we rarely examine our motivations to see if they make sense. We rarely scrutinize our reasons critically to see if they are rationally justified. As consumers we sometimes buy things impulsively and uncritically, without stopping to determine whether we really need what we are inclined to buy or whether we can afford it or whether it’s good for our health or whether the price is competitive. As parents we often respond to our children impulsively and uncritically, without stopping to determine whether our actions are consistent with how we want to act as parents or whether we are contributing to their self esteem or whether we are discouraging them from thinking or from taking responsibility for their own behavior.

As citizens, too often we vote impulsively and uncritically, without taking the time to familiarize ourselves with the relevant issues and positions, without thinking about the long-run implications of what is being proposed, without paying attention to how politicians manipulate us by flattery or vague and empty promises. As friends, too often we become the victims of our own infantile needs, "getting involved" with people who bring out the worst in us or who stimulate us to act in ways that we have been trying to change. As husbands or wives, too often we think only of our own desires and points of view, uncritically ignoring the needs and perspectives of our mates, assuming that what we want and what we think is clearly justified and true, and that when they disagree with us they are being unreasonable and unfair.

As patients, too often we allow ourselves to become passive and uncritical in our health care, not establishing good habits of eating and exercise, not questioning what our doctor says, not designing or following good plans for our own wellness. As teachers, too often we allow ourselves to uncritically teach as we have been taught, giving assignments that students can mindlessly do, inadvertently discouraging their initiative and independence, missing opportunities to cultivate their self-discipline and thoughtfulness.

It is quite possible and, unfortunately, quite "natural" to live an unexamined life; to live in a more or less automated, uncritical way. It is possible to live, in other words, without really taking charge of the persons we are becoming; without developing or acting upon the skills and insights we are capable of. However, if we allow ourselves to become unreflective persons — or rather, to the extent that we do — we are likely to do injury to ourselves and others, and to miss many opportunities to make our own lives, and the lives of others, fuller, happier, and more productive.

On this view, as you can see, critical thinking is an eminently practical goal and value. It is focused on an ancient Greek ideal of "living an examined life". It is based on the skills, the insights, and the values essential to that end. It is a way of going about living and learning that empowers us and our students in quite practical ways. When taken seriously, it can transform every dimension of school life: how we formulate and promulgate rules; how we relate to our students; how we encourage them to relate to each other; how we cultivate their reading, writing, speaking, and listening; what we model for them in and outside the classroom, and how we do each of these things.

Of course, we are likely to make critical thinking a basic value in school only insofar as we make it a basic value in our own lives. Therefore, to become adept at teaching so as to foster critical thinking, we must become committed to thinking critically and reflectively about our own lives and the lives of those around us. We must become active, daily, practitioners of critical thought. We must regularly model for our students what it is to reflectively examine, critically assess, and effectively improve the way we live.

Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.

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