Essay Problem Solution Smoking Gun

Tiny particles – like those produced in vast amounts by burning fossil fuels – can pass through the lungs into the bloodstream and then damage various different organs, according to a controversial new experiment.

While air pollution has been linked to heart disease and millions of premature deaths, it was previously not known whether it was possible for the smallest particles to pass from the lungs into the bloodstream.

The new research saw 14 healthy volunteers and 12 surgical patients inhale nanoparticles of gold.

Tests on their blood and urine picked up the nanoparticles after just 15 minutes and they were still present up to three months later.

The British Heart Foundation (BHF), which funded the study, said there was “no doubt that air pollution is a killer” but the results of the experiment helped show how the deed was done.

Several scientists praised the research, but one criticised the suggested link to air pollution and said it was "very risky" to give gold nanoparticles to humans.

A paper about the study in the journal ACS Nano by scientists from Edinburgh University and the Netherlands said: “Air pollution is a major public and environmental health issue contributing to up to seven million premature deaths worldwide each year.

“The adverse effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular health have been established in a series of major epidemiological studies.”

However finding any tiny particles from air pollution in the human body has proved difficult, so the researchers used gold, which could be more easily detected.

“Healthy volunteers were exposed to nanoparticles by acute inhalation, followed by repeated sampling of blood and urine,” the paper said.

“Gold was detected in the blood and urine within 15 minutes to 24 hours after exposure, and was still present three months after exposure. Levels were greater following inhalation of five-nanometre particles compared to 30nm particles.

“Gold particles could be detected in surgical specimens of carotid artery disease from patients at risk of stroke.”

The discovery of nanoparticles in the bloodstream and their accumulation at inflamed areas within the body “provides a direct mechanism that can explain the link between environmental nanoparticles and cardiovascular disease”, the researchers added.

Professor Jeremy Pearson, BHF’s associate medical director, said the study added to the case for the Government to take steps to reduce air pollution.

“There is no doubt that air pollution is a killer, and this study brings us a step closer to solving the mystery of how air pollution damages our cardiovascular health,” he said. 

“More research is needed to pin down the mechanism and consolidate the evidence, but these results emphasise that we must do more to stop people dying needlessly from heart disease caused by air pollution.

“Crucially, individual avoidance of polluted areas is not a solution to the problem. Government must put forward bold measures to make all areas safe and protect the population from harm.”

The Government was twice taken to court over substandard policies designed to reduce air pollution to within European Union safety limits. 

And it was twice ordered by a judge to produce a better plan, but failed to meet the latest deadline to do so on 24 April, claiming the imminent general election meant they were no longer able to comply with the judgement.

Andrea Leadsom, the Environment Secretary, dismissed calls to lift 'purdah' restrictions in order to allow new rules to come into force on the grounds that air pollution was not an "unexpected public health emergency".

Professor Frank Kelly, an expert in environmental health at King's College London, praised the “elegant study”, saying it “goes a long way in plugging a gap in the mechanistic understanding of how small particles contribute to vascular injury and disease”. 

“If these findings with gold particles reflect the movement of exhaust generated carbon particles, then the increased production of very small particles by modern engine technologies is a cause for further concern,” he said.

Terrifying video shows blanket of air pollution enveloping Beijing

And Professor Stephen Holgate, an immunopharmacologist at Southampton University, said: “It is clear from this study that acute episodic exposure to gold nanoparticles has a deleterious effect on cardiovascular disease. As the authors point out, there are also implications for inhaled nanoparticulates from air pollution. 

“Beyond acute exposure, what is of great future importance is the effect of chronic exposure to such particles and how early in life these cardiovascular effects begin since air pollution affects human health across the life course." 

However Professor Peter Dobson, of Oxford University, said the use of gold nanoparticles to model the effect of air pollution was “inappropriate”.

“The gold does not represent the chemistry that is present in and on airborne particulates from combustion and other anthropological sources,” he said.

Sadiq Khan calls air pollution in London a killer

He also criticised the use of gold nanoparticles on humans, saying this was “very risky because the small gold particles they used are known to be cytotoxic”. 

The mechanism identified in the study, Professor Dobson said, was “of minimal relevance to the real world”.

Environmentalists said the research provided more reasons – beyond global warming – why tackling air pollution was a good idea.

WWF Head of Energy and Climate, Gareth Redmond-King criticised the Government's record on the issue.

"The repeated delays in tackling it puts people’s health – and, indeed, lives – at risk," he said. 

"Air pollution is a serious public health crisis and must be an urgent priority for the next Government.

"From the remaining coal in in our power stations to the diesel and petrol in our car, bus, van and train engines, we need to ensure dirty fossil fuels are consigned to the dustbin of history.

"The UK Government’s air quality and clean growth plans must be ambitious in addressing this, replacing petrol and diesel with clean electric vehicles, better public transport, and safer space for cycling and walking.”

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  • Virginia Kearney 4 days agofrom United States

    Elvira, if your topic is about a person with potenital, you are probably not doing a problem solution essay. You are writing a reflection essay and I have an article which gives all of the instructions you will need, including information about how to do the introduction. Here is the link to that article:https://owlcation.com/humanities/How-to-Write-a-Re...

  • Elvira 4 days ago

    How can I start writing my essay topic is about Aperson with potential.I don't know how to start.can you please help me?

  • Virginia Kearney 3 weeks agofrom United States

    Kanika--It is a good idea to turn your topic into a question and an answer. Here are some examples:

    What is the effect of divorce on young children (or teenagers or college students)? Your answer would be your thesis. Another topic idea could be:

    What is the effect of divorce on men (or women)?

    What is the effect of divorce on a person's work? See my article on how to write a cause effect paper.

  • Kanika 3 weeks ago

    Can you help me to find topic sentence on,Effect of divorce?

  • Virginia Kearney 4 weeks agofrom United States

  • Sayed Abid sadat 4 weeks ago

    Hi! I need your help to select my topic on information technology to write my artical. thank you

  • Virginia Kearney 6 weeks agofrom United States

    Hi Mr. Johnson, I have everything you might need for writing a college essay on my website. You can look on my profile page or search for my articles on: choosing a topic; writing a thesis and topic sentences; how to organize and write different kinds of essays; using commas and semicolons correctly; easy words to use as sentence starters to write better essays and much more. I have over 100 articles about writing to help you out!

  • Dick Johnson 6 weeks ago

    Hi! I Have An Assignment I Have To Do In My College Class On Friday And I Was Looking For Some Advise! Thanks!

  • Richard Cranium 6 weeks ago

    This website helped my child with her homework.

  • Virginia Kearney 7 weeks agofrom United States

    I have many articles on different subjects for you to look at. Many of the ones in this article would work fine but you can also look at my articles which are specifically for high school students. A good paper idea is one that interests you and it will be easier to write if you immediately can think of your opinion on that topic and some examples you can use from your own life, something you've read, current news or an example from literature, a movie or another video.

  • Stupid Pickle 7 weeks ago

    I have to write an essay for English is there any topics that you would recommend for a high school freshman

  • tommy wensyel 2 months ago

    this article was very helpful and it wasn t bias my english teacher wanted us to write an essay. it was really helpful i got a lot of good ideas

  • Jawaher 2 months ago

    How can get out bad relationship

  • Virginia Kearney 3 months agofrom United States

    Hi Trang--I have a lot of information to help you write your paper. Look for my articles about how to write argument, problem solution and proposal papers. In order to discuss two solutions, you just need to think about two possible answers to the question that have not yet been done. For example, in the question "How can students get enough good sleep each night?" two good answers that are equal would be: making a schedule for work and sleep, and using a technology device like a cell phone or fitbit that tracks sleep patterns.

  • Trang Phan 3 months ago

    my writing teacher asks me to choose a pro-solution topic that is practically related to student life. After that i have to draw out two solutions which are equal to each other.It means that both of them can not be currently done. it seems so difficult

  • sssssss 4 months ago

    How can healthcare be ensured for everyone around the world?

  • Damtaodu 5 months ago

    How do one respond to new challenges and adapting to a different environment, living without familiar amenities, interacting with new and different types of people and studying intensively among others.

  • Virginia Kearney 6 months agofrom United States

    Hi Kashymawoh--I'm glad you've decided on a topic for your essay. You can find everything you need to know about writing it by looking at my other articles on writing problem solution essays and writing argument essays. If you don't see the link for that, search in my profile, which you can find on the top right of the page.

  • kashymawoh 6 months ago

    hi Virginia, i am writing an essay on solving unemployment issues in Nigeria, kindly assist me.

  • Virginia Kearney 7 months agofrom United States

    Hi Cassandra! After you choose your topic, be sure to look at my article about how to write a solution essay. I give all the instructions you should need. If you want help revising or with punctuation, you can find articles on those topic too.

  • Cassandra Pines 7 months ago

    I need to write a 6-7 page essay about a social movement. I don't know how to start

  • Virginia Kearney 9 months agofrom United States

    Hi, Sparsh, Your best help would be to look at my other articles about how to write problem solution essays and argument essays. You might also like to look at my articles on Toulmin, Rogerian and Classical argument strategies. These articles include specific instruction on how to organize and outline your essay as well as how to argue effectively for your solution. In addition, they provide samples with commentary on why these work. Finally, you ought to look at my articles on how to write a great thesis and topic sentences. You can find these by searching for my name on Letterpile, or by looking on my profile page. I have over 100 articles on writing to help you out.

  • SPARSH AGARWAL 9 months ago

    Hey Virginia,

    I am preparing for writing section of PCAT exam. In the writing section, there are generally problem solution essays. It is my humble request if you could provide me with a source where there are more of problem solution sample essays, so that I can prepare accordingly and practice writing on the problems mentioned above.

    Regards

    Sparsh

  • Virginia Kearney 11 months agofrom United States

    Problems with health can be related to disease or preventative measures like diet and exercise. Here are some easy health-related topics: How can a person with Celiac disease best manage their diet? How can students best exercise and eat to be healthy? What are the best strategies to avoid illness? How can people avoid heart disease? What is the best way to stay healthy if you have diabetes?

  • poo 11 months ago

    i want a health related topic. like people should be concerned about their health. but what problem can i state?

  • Stevie Glenn 12 months agofrom Minneapolis

    Great topics on education! Good sources for quick education articles.

  • Chris Velo 14 months ago

    Thank you for all the topics to write on; I would read one section thinking that I couldn't write anything only to discover a few points I had to make into a quick essay.

  • Virginia Kearney 14 months agofrom United States

    Hi Colleen--I'd suggest you look at my Non-Profit Research Paper article for help.https://hubpages.com/literature/Research-Paper-on-...

  • Colleen 14 months ago

    Hello Virgina,

    I have a Critical Analysis & Research Writing paper due the assignment is A Good for A Community: A Research Based-Solution Essay I am having the most difficult time with this. Can you help?

  • Virginia Kearney 15 months agofrom United States

    KyLie--That is an interesting idea. The departmental final exam for my students included a question about this topic. I will see if I can add some to the list.

  • KyLie 15 months ago

    I would like some topics on the death of Harambe the gorilla....

  • Karla 16 months ago

    Should have a topic about animal abuse or cruelty!

  • Bangladesh Page 2 years ago

    Here is a lot of topics to write on. It really makes me think to write something on the topics. There are some topics here I never thought that an essay can be written! Thanks for sharing.

  • Virginia Kearney 2 years agofrom United States

    Hi Zero, I don't exactly understand what you want. Perhaps you mean you want to write an essay about "How to find a good job?" or "Solving the difficult problem of finding a good job?"

  • Virginia Kearney 2 years agofrom United States

    Hi mtariqsattar--I actually have also written articles about how to write essays of many types. You can search for this on Hubpages or just look for the links next to my topic ideas articles.

  • Tariq Sattar 2 years agofrom Karachi

    Hi there VirginiaLynne, I don't know how to start but you nailed it and you seem to possess command over topics. You do justify what you have said in your profile.

    Anyway, I enjoyed reading your hub - it is helpful to those who are seeking to teach essay at the college or university level, and those who want to writer such a genre of essay. That is problem-solution essay.

    I would ask though about the tips to writing an essay quickly and accurately at the same time. How should you as an essay writer achieve both ends?

  • Virginia Kearney 2 years agofrom United States

    Thanks for the ideas Jaime--I may think about putting some solution ideas into another article.

  • b.s.s 2 years ago

    Wow!! What a great topics

  • Virginia Kearney 2 years agofrom United States

    So glad Symphony Dunbar that you are using my site to get good ideas. You must be doing a good job writing those essays too!

  • Symphony Dunbar 2 years ago

    I love this site. I come on here, get a topic, write an essay, get an A+, just like that!

  • sera 3 years ago

    Thanks it helped so much

  • Maria Cuevas 3 years ago

    I would really like environment issues. It is very passionate among many.

  • Virginia Kearney 3 years agofrom United States

    Hi Justin--Glad this helped you. I have a 5th grade daughter and two daughters in 7th. I used to teach 6th grade myself and know that you are learning a lot about writing!

  • justin 3 years ago

    I really like the questions for the problem and solution it makes me want to improve some mistakes I made.P.S. I'm a 6th grader.

  • Tessa 3 years ago

    Awesome website! I'm definitely going to use one of these topics. Helped a lot. Thanks!!!!!

  • Hyder 3 years ago

    How "Education is solution all our problem" I want to write essay this topic anyone help me

  • Ova ELai 3 years ago

    I would like a topic on counselling a teenage who thinks is having a sexually transmitted disease or HIV

  • Virginia Kearney 3 years agofrom United States

    Thanks Ashley--I will write some topics about that!

  • Ashley 3 years ago

    Military life topics would be great!

  • djelke16 3 years ago

    Great topics! Thank you so much.

  • Dottie 4 years ago

    Thank you! This was so helpful!

  • Rachel 4 years ago

    This website is perfect! Helped me a lot, thanks!

  • Lcarter 4 years ago

    Great topics!

  • Virginia Kearney 4 years agofrom United States

    So glad I helped you Kaiya! I know that getting the right topic and finding some good information can really help someone overcome that writer's block that makes starting an essay so hard!

  • kaiya123 4 years ago

    This helped a ton! Anyone of these topics could easily be well written, being that there is so much information about each topic. I seriously couldn't have thought of any of these topics, and this definitely helped my essay. There was many topics to choose from, depending on the area you are interested in. It made me think about what I really wanted to write about! Thanks so much!!! :)

  • Maria Jordan 4 years agofrom Jeffersonville PA

    A meaty and worthwhile list of subjects for anyone to pursue...most thought provoking and interesting topics. Excellent job.

    Voted UP and UAI. Hugs, Maria

  • SaM 4 years ago

    This HELPED a lot! Thanks!

  • Pamela Oglesby 4 years agofrom United States

    You really thought of so many valid topic that are all worthy of discussion. Anyone of this topic could easily be written about and really there are so many problems, it is a bit overwhelming, but then we must start somewhere. This is a great idea for a hub and no one should have to have writer's block anymore. Voted up and useful.

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