Barker, Margo E; Campbell, Michael J; Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean. (2005) Do food deserts influence fruit and vegetable consumption?—a cross-sectional study. Appetite,45(2),195-197.
The authors of this journal article are professionals in the fields of Public Health, Statistical Support, General Practice and Primary Care, and Human nutrition. The article strives to inform the public, but more importantly, people like nutritionists and public health workers. They seek to investigate the contributing factors of fruit and vegetable consumption. Through extensive field work and practical methodology, the researchers determined that factors such as deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. The study suggests that the existence of a food desert did not change the amount of fruits or vegetables consumed. The study concludes with the suggestion that food policies aimed towards better diets should focus more on other factors than food deserts. This article is useful for us because it illustrates the common misconceptions with food deserts.
Block, Daniel. (2006) What fills the gaps in food deserts? Mapping independent groceries, food stamp card utilization and chain fast-food restaurants in the Chicago area. Appetite, 47(3), 386-388.
Daniel Block is a Professor with the Department of Geography at Chicago State University. Food deserts are commonly characterized by a lack of access to chain supermarkets. This study is aimed towards researching the effect of independent supermarkets within a food desert community. Block uses GIS mapping and survey data on food access to determine that, although poor and minority areas are less likely to have full-line chain supermarkets, it does not necessarily follow that these communities have poor access. For example many Hispanic and other ethnic communities have stores that cater to their cuisines. This article is useful in that it sheds light on the fact that a lack of supermarkets does not immediately mean the area is a food desert. In our analysis of the Easton community it would be very important to take these independent food markets into consideration.
Burke, J. G., Keane, C. R. & Walker, R.E. (2010). Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health and Place,16 (5), 876-884.
This document, published in 2009, analyzes 31 case studies using 9 measures to assess food access in food deserts. This will prove to be useful in determining the best way to analyze the food desert situation in Easton, and it will provide some examples for how to interpret our results. By taking many specific examples and condensing them into several larger themes, this article will provide a better, more thorough framework for the context surrounding the issue at hand. This will be important in understanding Easton’s role in the national food desert problem.
Coveney, J., & Lisel A. O. (2009). Effects of mobility and location on food access. Health and Place,15(1), 45-55.
This source follows the debate about the existence and characteristics of food deserts. Using research reported from in-depth interviews with people without private transport, personal testimonials come to life in explaining the situation as it exists today. The research implies that food access problems are the responsibility of social and welfare networks that provide transportation, which is an important facet of the problem. This enhances our understanding on the transportation aspect of food access.
Cummins, S. (2002, August 24). “Food deserts” — evidence and assumption in health policy making. BMJ 325 (7361), 436-438.
This article, published in 2002, relates the issue of food deserts back to public health policy. It challenges that empirical evidence disproving the alleged widespread impact of food deserts against the following public policy response. Although the study is focused in the United Kingdom, it will serve as a point of reference to begin to consider public policy issues on a local level. This paper illustrates how factoids can easily and uncritically become part of the apparatus of government health policy when they fit in with broader policy objectives. An emphasized message is that we need to move away from an unquestioning acceptance of conventional wisdom and cast a more critical eye on facts. This source will be useful because it challenges the food desert dilemma as it exists, and provides a valid counterpoint that policymakers must learn to consider. It is important to consider this issue from all perspectives.
Gordon, C., Purciel-Hill, M., Ghai, N.R., Kaufman, L., Graham, R., Van Wye, G. (2011). Measuring food deserts in New York City’s low-income neighborhoods. Health & Place, 17(2), 696-700.
Cynthia Gordon, Nirupa R. Ghai, and Gretchen Van Wye work for the East and Central Harlem District Public Health Office. Marnie Purciel-Hill works for Human Impact Partners, and Leslie Kaufman and Regina Graham work for the North and Central Brooklyn district Public Health Office. Through methodological innovations these researchers were able to calculate ‘food desert scores’. They found that east and central Harlem, along with north and central Brooklyn received the lowest scores, while the highest scores were on the Upper East Side. They stress the difference in social class between the two areas. The article is different from others cited here in that it seeks to determine a distinct correlation between the locations of food deserts, or unhealthy food environments, with a higher proportion of minority residents. The article offers a distinct social class analysis on the issue from which our research project can definitively benefit.
Hinrichs, C.C., Jensen, E.B., & Schafft, K.A. (2009) Food deserts and overweight schoolchildren: evidence from Pennsylvania. Rural Sociology, 74(2), 153-177.
K.A. Shafft is a rural sociologist who focuses broadly on the intersection between social inequality and spatial inequality. Clare Hinrichs is an associate professor of rural sociology at Penn State institute of energy and the environment. The article addresses the rural community as a whole, as well as policy makers in the food distribution industry. The article seeks to illustrate the correlation between spatial inequality and community well being. Specifically the article addresses the relationship between food deserts and obesity, particularly in rural areas. This offers a different perspective on the issue of food deserts, because most sources tend to analyze food deserts within an urban medium. This source is important for our topic because it offers a slightly different perspective on the food desert crisis that highlights an important topic, which is that obesity is also a negative side effect of food deserts.
Hobiss, A. (2000, June 1). Food deserts and how to tackle them: a study of one city’s approach. Health Education Journal, 59(2), 137-149.
This article, published in 2000, provides a comprehensive description of one approach to solving the food desert situation in one community in the United Kingdom. The researchers took an inclusive approach, focusing both on aspects of poverty and the food system, in both the public and private sectors. Personal testimonials are taken into consideration for prescribing proposals to improve access to a healthier diet. Following the procedure taken by other researchers to uncover the same types of information, we can hone in on our tactic for understanding the similar local situation.
Larson, N. I., Story, M. T., & Nelson, M. C. (2009). Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(1), 74-81.
This study utilized a snowball strategy to identify relevant research studies completed in the United States and published between 1985 and 2008. It helpfully brings different studies together to conclude that neighborhood disparities in food access are of grave concern in some urban areas in the United States. These findings will help us to place Easton within the larger context of the national problem although it will probably lack any useable regionally specific data.
Leibtag, E. (2006, December 29). The impact of big-box stores on retail food prices and the consumer price index. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Research Report, 33, 1-35.
This report focuses on retail food market dynamics and how they impact price variation across different store formats, in order to rectify the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index (CPI) to better reflect an accurate cost-of-living 8,000 homes were studied across the US in an effort to find the discrepancies in the CPI as related to “traditional” and “non-traditional” stores, e.g. small grocers compared to Wal-Mart.. The conclusion is that these non-traditional retailers provide the same quality products at a lower price and traditional retailers should follow this format to compete. However, this study also illuminates the fact that those in urban, low-income areas do pay more for food, which is a point that is crucial to our research.
Morland, K., Wing, S., Diez Roux, A., & Poole, C. (2002). Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(1), 23-29.
Census tracts from 1990 were used in Jackson City, Mississippi; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Washington County, Maryland; and selected suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Food stores were found through local department of environmental health and state departments of agriculture. NAICS codes were used to categorize food stores. Wealth and racial composition were compared against number of stores. This study highlights many of the important differences between White neighborhoods and African American or racially mixed neighborhoods. It shows that supermarkets are much more likely to be found in White neighborhoods than African American or racially mixed neighborhoods.
Powell, L.M., Slater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y., & Chaloupka, F.J. (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Preventative Medicine, 44(3), 189-195
Powell et al conducted an analysis of populations across 28,050 zip codes in the US in relation to access to supermarkets, independent grocers, and convenience stores. They concede that many limitations are inherent in such a large sample with such coarse measurements. The analysis took ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status and income into account. Findings are consistent with earlier studies showing that African-Americans have greatly disadvantaged access to supermarkets even when controlling for income. This article supports the argument that food deserts are often bounded by class lines.
Russell, Scott E., Heidkamp, C.P. (2011) ‘Food desertification’: the loss of a major supermarket in New Haven, Connecticut. Applied Geography, 31(4), 1197-1209.
Both authors are familiar with the New Haven area of Connecticut and have researched it extensively. They published this article intending to inform the general public, specifically and most directly New Haven, Ct, but also all cities where ‘food desertification’ is a real concern. The article differs from others cited here due to the focus upon the consequences of the loss of a central food distributor. It considers the pivotal role of the supermarket business model in the creation or exacerbation of urban food deserts. This article will help to shed light on the specific consequences of the loss of a large-scale food distribution center. The article will also aid us in the development of GIS data, due to the excellent mapping that the authors have done.
Ver Ploeg, M. (2009, June). Access to affordable and nutritious food: Measuring and understanding food deserts and their consequences. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 1-150.
This is a government report to Congress prepared by U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2009. The report fills a request for a study of food deserts and summarizes findings of a national – level assessment of the extent and characteristics of food deserts, analysis of the consequences of food deserts, lessons learned from related Federal programs, and a discussion of policy options for alleviating the effects of food deserts. Although it is a government document and not a peer-reviewed article, this source is beneficial in looking ahead to the future of food deserts in the Unites States.
Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Israel, B., James, S., Bao, S., & Wilson, M. (2005a). Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan Detroit. American Journal of Public Health, 95(4), 660-667.
Measurements of supermarket proximity in Detroit were taket. Census tracts in the metropolitan Detroit area were used to define the neighborhoods. Stores were identified through the Michigan Department of Agriculture. A limitation of this study is that only supermarkets were used, fruits and vegetables are often sold at corner stores and independent grocery stores. It was found through this study that race had an effect on access to supermarkets and that African Americans had significantly less access.
Academic Writing, with Readings
. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. 53551. #rint.#ollan shows us all o the dierent theories the nu%)er o diseases asso*iated with the Western <iet. owe(er, #ollan disa'rees with these theories and ar'ues that )oth the ood and health industries are to )la%e or this. <enis Burkitt su''ests that the only way to a(oid this *y*le is to 'o )a*kwards to the diet and liestyle o our an*estors whi*h #ollan inter&rets as eat oods that are less &ro*essed. #ollan$s answer to this is to si%&ly eat s%arter and he 'oes as ar to su''est that we oursel(es are &art o the &ro)le% )e*ause we do not s&end enou'h %oney or ti%e in ter%s o &re&aration on ood. #ollan %akes so%e e-*ellent &oints in this and I do a'ree that takin' short*uts in order to *ut ti%e when &re&arin' ood de*reases its uality. But #ollan ails to &oint out se(eral issues with our diet. #reser(ati(es are as %u*h o a &ro)le% as &ro*essed oods, and he does s&e*tate on this issue )y sayin' 8he ood$s en(iron%ent is ;ust as i%&ortantas the ood$s uality, he ails to e-&lain that &reser(ati(es are in nearly e(erythin'. ostly &lants is not a sae o o&tion like #ollan would su''est, it has the sa%e denaturali4ed &ro*ess as the %eat industry. In *on*lusion while #ollan %akes a stron' and &ersuasi(e ar'u%ent/ there are so%e &ro)le%s in what he is su''estin', it is ;ust a )it too si%&listi*.Warner, =udith. "=unkin' =unk 7ood."
They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, with Readings
. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010. 5000!. #rint.=udith Warner e-&lains how 'o(ern%ent is tryin' to re'ulate the a%ount o ;unk ood that+%eri*ans *onsu%e, and that it will )e a lon' and dii*ult &ro*ess to *han'e our *ulture o eatin', )ut it *an )e done usin' &sy*holo'y to %ani&ulate how we see our ood. 9he e-&lains thin's that ha(e re*ently ha&&ened with usin' &oliti*s to try and re'ulate *onsu%&tion, and also %akes an e-a%&le o +%eri*a$s history to e-&lain how eatin' ha)its ha(e *han'ed throu'hout the years. <a(id >essler, the or%er ?.9. 7ood and <ru' +d%inistration *o%%issioner and author o the 200 )ook, 8he End o @(ereatin': 8akin' ontrol o the Insatia)le +%eri*an +&&etite, oers his stand&oint on the )est way to 'et +%eri*ans$ to eat healthier, statin' that, ultural *han'e is what oers the )est ho&e or transor%in' how and what +%eri*ans eat., it was a shit in *ultural attitudes, not laws or re'ulations, that led +%eri*ans to uit s%okin'. In the s&a*e o a 'eneration, he says, *i'arettes sto&&ed )ein' &ortrayed as se-y and *ool and started to )e seen as a terri)ly dis'ustin', addi*ti(e &rodu*t. Be*ause o how e%otionally ulillin' ood is/ it$s (ery hard i not i%&ossi)le, to sti'%ati4e unhealthul eatin'. >essler says, that so*ial nor%s *ould *han'e: that hu'e &ortions or eatin' &ro*essed oods loaded with su'ar, salt and at, or e-a%&le, *ould *o%e to )e seen as so*ially una**e&ta)le. Warner also %akes it (ery a&&arent that i we don$t sol(e this now it will haunt us or years to *o%e.